1. Sociology is the science of political science, on the other hand, it is the science of state and government. Sociology studies society as a whole and man as a social being where as political science deals with a particular aspect of society which is regarded as a politically organised unit. Therefore, political science is a more specialised science than sociology.
2. Sociology has wider scope than that of political science. Sociology deals with social, political, economic, cultural and other aspects of society and studies will be the social institutions such as family, marriage, religion, kinship, caste and so on.
But political science deals with political aspect and studies a specific political institution like state and government only. Thus, sociology is regarded as a general science while political science is viewed as a specialised social science.
3. Sociology studies forms of associations and institutions where as political science deals with the state and government which are known as specific forms of association.
That is why professor Garner remarks “Political science,is concerned with only human form association such as state, sociology deals with all forms of association.”
4. Sociology studies all kinds of social relationship in a general way. But political science studies only the political aspect of social relationship in a particular way.
5. Sociology studies both organised and disorganised societies. But political science studies only the politically organised societies.
6. Sociology deals with both formal as well as informal relations of the society which are based on customs, traditions, folkways, mores, norms etc. But political science deals only with formal relations based on laws and order of the state.
7. Sociology is the study of all means of social control. Political science, on the other hand, is the study of only government recognized means of control.