The United Nations Organization was founded in 1945 soon after the end of the Second World War. It is a world body with a large number of sovereign states as its members. Similarly at end of the First World War, the League of Nations was formed. It dominated the world politics for ten or fifteen years after which its influence deteriorated. It could not stand groupism and power politics.
Towards the end of the Second World War the need of a world body strong enough to prevent war was actually felt. In 1944 the three war-rime allies- the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union-met at Dumbarton Oaks. They thought of establishing an organization for the maintenance of “International Peace and Security and Co-operation in establishing political, economic and social conditions.” They drew up a number of proposals which latter on formed the basis of the U.N. Charter. In 1945 as-many-as fifty-one nations met at San Francisco and signed the U.N.O. Charter. Thus the United Nations Organization came into being.
The aims of the United Nations Organization are (1) to maintain international peace and security, (2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples, (3) to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all. (4) To act as a centre harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
The Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia and China are the five permanent members. The duty of the Security Council is to investigate international disputes and to take suitable action in preventing danger to international peace. In order to make the decisions of Security Council effective, there should be unanimity in five permanent members. If nay one of these permanent members Vetoes the decision, it will be ineffective.
The General Assembly is next in importance to the Security Council. Every member nation has got one vote in the Assembly. The Security Council is an executive body whereas the General Assembly performs deliberative functions. It makes recommendations to the Security Council.
A number of other organizations also work under the U.N.O. these are (1) International Court of Justice. (2) International Monetary Fund, (3) The World Bank, (4) Food and Agricultural Organization, (5) united Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), (6) International Labor Organization (ILO), (7) The World Health Organization (WHO), (8) Trusteeship Council, (9) United Nation Development Programme, (10) United Nation Information and Children Education Foundation (UNICEF) etc. The secretariat of the UN draws its staff from the member nations. The head of the Secretariat is called the Secretary General.
One should attempt to asses what has really changed since 1945 and what has not changed. The biggest triumph of the U.N. is that it cherished dream of decolonization has become a reality.
What has not changed, no the other hand is the hegemony of north over the south.
The U.N. is actively involved resolving problems and we as citizens of our wide international community have the responsibility to enlighten ourselves and the people around us all about the significance of the U.N. The struggle for peace, justice and human dignity waged at the U.N. is very much the struggle of all the people of the world. Their support for it can make the repetitive setbacks a growing success.
The utility of the U.N.O. is a topic for hot controversy. So far it has dealt with a few problems. It has achieved partial success. In many cases it ahs failed, while in few cases it has succeeded. It is criticized for its failure. Of course, much can be said on both sides. It is, however, certain that it ahs justified its existence as the most practical instrument for peace ever devised through voluntary co-operation among different nations. So far it has refused to be a tool in the hands of any nation. This is the secret of its strength. It fills the peoples of the world with hope that it will prevent the outbreak of any devastating war.
The U.N.O. has held prolonged deliberations on the problem of disbarment. There is a great threat of total annihilation of humanity as a result of third world-war which would be certainly an atomic war. It is high time all the nations decide to give up the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes.
National and racial barriers combined with power-politics create great obstacle in the realization of objectives of the U.N. Charter. At present the U.N.O. is dominated by Western Powers, but this state of things is not going to last long. The newly liberated nations of Asia and Africa have come to their own and occupy and adequate position in world politics.
The Western Powers have set up a number of regional pacts NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Organization), the SEATO (the South East Asia Treat Organization), the Baghdad Pact etc. These regional pacts undermine the prestige of the U.N.O. and lead to groupism and power politics. The U.N.O. is not a super-star or World Government. It does not have coercive force. Its strength lies in the co-operation of its members.