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What are Phanerogams?

Phanerogams are flowering or seed-bearing plants. They are the most advanced plants. They possess well-developed roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

Marsh Sow-thistle, Sonchus palustris, Woodwalton Fen national ...

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Phanerogams are divided into two main gropus.

  1. Gymnosperms
  2. Angiosperms

1. Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms are naked – seeded plants, which mean that, in these plants the seeds are not enclosed in a fruit. These plants are mostly found in hills. Some of these possess ‘cones’ and are hence called ‘conifers’. Pine, fir, cycas are examples of gymnosperms.

2. Angiosperms

Angiosperms are closed – seeded plants. In these plants the seeds are enclosed in a fruit. Flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Mango, apple, rose, sunflowers and pea are examples of flowering plants.

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Angiosperms are further classified as:

Monocotyledons (Monocot for short) these are plants which the seed has only one cotyledon. All grasses, bamboo, sugarcane, wheat, rice, banana and palms are monocots.

Dicotyledons (Dicot for short these are plants in which the seed has two cotyledons. Bean, gram, pulses, most fruit trees, vegetables and ornamental plants are dictos.

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