What are the major causes of water and air pollution?

The pollution of air due to different causes such as industrial chimney wastes, pollutants from thermal power stations, automobiles etc. polluted the air and affect health of the organisms.

(i) Industrial Chimney Wastes:

In 20th century a large number large scale and small scale industries have become the source of pollution. Petroleum refineries has become a major source of gaseous pollution and the chief gases reduce are SO2 and NO2.

(ii) Thermal Power Stations:

In India as well as in Orissa so many power stations are super thermal power stations are opened and the chief pollutants are fly-ash, SO2 other gases and hydrocarbons.

(iii) Locomotives, Automobiles:

The toxic vehicular exhaust has become a source of air pollution. The ever increasing of vehicular traffic density paved a continuous threat to the ambient air quality.

Measures to Control Air Pollution:

By using the following modern methods air pollution can be controlled.

  • Industries should be set up at a far away distance from die residential areas habitat of population.
  • The chimneys of all industries should be provided with filter.
  • Rules and measures to be taken to prevent the air pollution caused by smoke of vehicles.
  • Pest controls to be made.
  • Measures to be taken to purify the poisonous chemicals by other chemicals.
  • Green plantations should be encouraged and in the same period deforestation should be legally checked.

Causes of Water Pollution:

The water pollution may be caused for the following:

  1. Biotic fertilizers or waste in the reservoirs and water gas polluted.
  2. The poisonous chemicals when mixed with water, kill the, biotic community of the water reservoir. For this water gets pollute.

The main sources of water pollution are as follows:

  • Sewage: The dirty water from latrine, bathrooms, and all the household wastes are dumped into water reservoirs, as a result the water pollution increases.
  • The Industrial pollutants: The industrial pollutants are passed into water reservoirs and such pollutants of industries are sugar, paper, tannery, clothes, jute, steel, fertilizer and water gets, polluted. The water of the reservoir become unfit for use and as the industrial pollutants contain toxic chemicals creates health hazards.
  • Mercury passes into food chains poisons fish and creates diseases.
  • Acid, alkali, poisons and other liquid pollutants. It kills fishes and other aquatic animals and become toxic to human beings.
  • Thermal pollution and hot water causes high temperature and reduces oxygen in water.
  • Agricultural pollutants: fertilizers and pesticides are largely used to increase the production and controlling pests. Such materials mix in water and pollute the air and creates poisonous.

Measures or Control Water Pollution:

  • Dumping of waster in water reservoir should be checked and the reservoirs should be kept clean from these pollutants.
  • Drains are to be made to pass the waste water from the industries.
  • The bathing of farm animals in the reservoirs and washing of clothes in ponds, tanks should be checked.
  • Polluted water from industries should not be passed into reservoirs.
  • All inorganic wastes of towns and cities should be used to prepare compost and cow dung and organic wastes of farm houses shouts used in biogas plant and to produce manure. The agricultural wastes like straw etc. are to be used for preparing live stocks food.