What are the causes of Urbanization?

There are five major factors responsible for urbanization in India. They are - (1) Migration, (2) Industrial growth, (3) Apathy of government, (4) defective town planning, (5) vested interest forces.

Migration:

People migrate themselves from rural areas to the town, industrial areas because of the relatively better employment opportunities available there. In India, the migration has four patterns, such as rural to-rural to urban to urban and urban to rural. Though rural to rural migration is by far the most prevalent form of movement but rural to urban and urban to urban migration is equally crucial.

Industrial Growth

When urban population growth rate is 40% in India, the industrial growth rate is about 60% per annum. The Seventy Five Year Plan population an industrial growth rate of 8.0% per annum. This growth takes care of the additional job requirement in the cities. The fertility sector is also provides refuge to the migrants though their earning remain at low level.

Apathy of Government:

The administrative management in our cities is also responsible for the mess in which city dwellers find themselves. Municipal Governments have not kept pace with city growth either spatial or in terms’ of management infrastructure. There is neither the will nor the capacity to plan for the future. There is also no skill and capacity to manage what exists. Until we improve the capacity of our cities to govern themselves, we cannot emerge from the urban mess.

Defective Town Planning:

A more alarming factor in the general deterioration in the standard of civic services is the growing sense of helplessness of our planners and administrators. From the Planning Commission downwardsism, there seems to be a fatalistic acceptance of the uncontrolled growth in our metropolitan cities.

Vested Interest Forces:

The last cause of urban problems is the vested interest forces that work against people but enhance private commercial interests and profits. The pity residents are usually powerless to affect decisions that elates make to enhance their own interests, power and profit.