Fayol developed theory of management. According to him managerial excellence is a technically ability and can be acquired. He developed theories and principles of management which are universally accepted and make him universalistic. He was pioneer of the formal education in management. Fayol's principles of management meet the requirements of modern management.
Henry Fayol, a frech industrialist, offered fourteen principles of management for the first time in 1916. During the period of 1920-40 in the U.S. many authors did hard work in developing and testing various principles of management. Today, there is a very lengthly list of management principles and it is not possible to give an exhaustive lot of these management principles. Here, we are giving some important principles of management.
Henry Fayol's Principle of Management
Following are the fourteen principles of management developed by the Henry Fayol:
Division of Work
According to Henry Fayol under division of work, "The worker always on the same post, the manager always concerned with the same matters, acquire an ability, sureness and accuracy which increases their output. In other words, division of work means specialization. According to this principle, a person is not capable of doing all types of work. Each job and work should be assigned to the specialist of his job. Division of work promotes efficiency because it permits an organizational member to work in a limited area reducing the scope of his responsibility. Fayol wanted the division of work not only at factory but at management levels also.
Authority and Responsibility
Authority and responsibility go together or co-existing. Both authority and responsible are the two sides of a coin. In this way, if anybody is made responsible for any job, he should also have the concerned authority. Fayol's principle of management in this regard is that an efficient manager makes best possible use of his authority and does not escape from the responsibility. In other awards when the authority is exercised the responsibility. In other awards when the authority is exercised the responsibility is automatically generated.
According to Henry Fayol discipline means sincerity about the work and enterprise, carrying out orders and instructions of superiors and to have faith in the policies and programmes of the business enterprise, in other sense, discipline in terms of obedience, application, energy and respect to superior. However, Fayol does not advocate warming, fines, suspension and dismissals of worker for maintaining discipline. These punishments are rarely awarded. A well disciplined working force is essential for improving the quality and quantity of the production.
Unity of Command
A subordinate should take order from only one boss and he should be responsible and accountable to him. Further he claimed that if the unit of command is violated, authority is undermined, disciplined in danger, order disturbed and stability threatened. The violation of this principle will face some serious consequences. In this way, the principle of unity of command provides the enterprise disciplined, stable and orderly existence. It creates harmonious relationship between officers and subordinates, congenial atmosphere of work. It is one of the Fayol's important essential principle of management.
Unity of direction
Fayol advocates "One head and one plan" which means that group efforts on a particular plan be led and directed by a single person. This enables effective co-ordination of individual efforts and energy. This fulfils the principles of unity of command and brings uniformity in the work of same nature. In this way the principle of direction create dedication to purpose and loyalty. It emphasizes the attainment of common goal under one head.
Subordination of individual interests to general interests
The interest of the business enterprise ought to come before the interests of the praise individual workers. In other words, principle of management state that employees should surrender their personnel interest before the general interest of the enterprise. Sometimes the employees due to this ignorance, selfishness, laziness, carelessness and emotional pleasure overlook the interest of the organisation. This attitude proves to be very harmful to the enterprise.
Fair Remuneration to employees
According to Fayol wage-rates and method of their payment should be fair, proper and satisfactory. Both employees and ex-employers should agree to it. Logical and appropriate wage-rate and methods of their payment reduces tension and differences between workers and management, create harmonious relationship and a pleasing atmosphere of work. Further Fayol recommends that residential facilities be provided including arrangement of electricity, water and facilities.
Centralization and Decentralization
There should be one central point in the organisation which exercises overall direction and control of all the parts. But the degree of centralization of authority should vary according to the needs of situation. According to Fayol there should be centralization in small units and proper decentralization in big organisation. Further, Fayol does not favor centralization or decentralization of authorities but suggests that these should be proper and effective adjustment between centralization and decentralization in order to achieve maximum objectives of the business. The choice between centralization and decentralization be made after taking into consideration the nature of work and the efficiency, experience and decision-making capacity of the executives.
The scalar chain is a chain of supervisors from the highest to the lowest rank. It should be short-circuited. An employee should feel the necessity to contact his superior through the scalar chain. The authority and responsibility is communicated through this scalar chain. Fayol defines scalar chain as "the chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest rank." The flow of information between management and workers is a must. Business opportunities must be immediately avoided of. so we must make direct contact with the concerned employee. Business problems need immediate solution, so we cannot always depend on the established scalar chain. It requires that direct contact should be established.
According to Fayol there should be proper, systematic and orderly arrangement of physical and social factors, such as land, raw materials, tools and equipments and employees respectively. As per view, there should be safe, appropriate and specific place for every article and every place to be used effectively for a particular activity and commodity. In other words, principles that every piece of land and every article should be used properly, economically and in the best possible way. Selection and appointment of the most suitable person to every job. There should be specific place for every one and every one should have specific place. This principle also stresses scientific selection and appointment of employees on every job.
The principle of equality should be followed and applicable at every level of management. There should not be any discrimination as regards caste, sex and religion. An effective management always accords sympathetic and human treatment. The management should be kind, honest and impartial with the employees. In other words, kindness and justice should be exercised by management in dealing with their subordinates. This will create loyalty and devotion among the employees. Thus, workers should be treated at par at every level.
Stability of use of personnel
Principle of stability is linked with long tenure of personnel in the organisation. This means production being a team work, an efficient management always builds a team of good workers. If the members of the team go on changing the entire process of production will be disturbed. It is always in the interest of the enterprise that its trusted, experienced and trained employees do not leave the organisation. Stability of job creates a sense of belongingness among workers who with this feeling are encouraged to improve the quality and quantity of work.
Under this principle, the successful management provides an opportunity to its employees to suggest their new ideas, experiences and more convenient methods of work. The employees, who has been working on the specific job since long discover now, better alternative approach and technique of work. It will be more useful, if initiative to do so is provided to employees. In simple, to ensure success, plans should be well formulated before they are implemented.
Spirit of Co-operation (Spirit de crops)
In order to achieve the best possible results, individual and group effort are to be effectively integrated and coordinated. Production is a team work for which the whole-hearted support and co-operation of the members at all levels is required. Everyone should sacrifice his personal interest and contribute his best energies to achieve the best results. it refers to the spirit of loyalty, faithfulness on the part of the members of the group which can be achieved by strong motivating recognition and importance of the members for their valuable contribution, effective coordination, informal mutual social relationship between members of the group and positive and constructive approach of the management towards workers' welfare.