The concept of management.
The concept of management is not fixed. It has changing according to time and circumstances. The concept of management has been used in integration and authority etc. Different authors on management have given different concepts of management. The main concepts of management are as follows:
According to this concept 'management is what a manager does'. The man followers of this concept are Louis Allen, George R. Terry, Henry Fayol, E.F.L. Brech, James L. Lundy, Koontz and O. Donnel, G.E Milward, mcfarland etc. The functional concept as given by some of the authors is given below:
I. Louis Allen, "Management is what a manager does."
II. James L. Lundy, " Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the effort of others towards a specific objective. Management is what management does. It is the task of planning, executing and controlling."
III. George R. Terry, "Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, activating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objective by the use of human beings and other resources."
IV. Howard M. Carlisle, "Management is defined as the process by which the elements of a group are integrated, coordinated and/or utilized so as to effectively and efficiently achieve organizational objectives."
V. Henry Fayol, "To manage is to forecast, and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control."
'Getting Things Done Through Others' Concept:
According to this concept, 'Management is the art of getting things done through others'. It is very narrow and traditional concept of management. The followers of this concept are Koontz and O Donnell, Mooney and Railey, Lawrence A. Appley, S. George, Mary Parker Follet etc. Under this concept, the workers are treated as a factor of production only and the work of the manager is confined to taking work from the workers. He need not do any work himself. Modern management experts do not agree with this concept of management. Some of these authors have explained this concept in the following words:
I. Mary Parker Follet, "Management is the art of getting things done through others."
II. Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and wit people in formally organized groups. It is the art of creating and environment in which people can perform as individuals and yet cooperate towards attaining of group goals.
III. J.D. Mooney and A.C. Railey, "Management is the art of directing and inspiring people."
Leadership and Decision-making Concept:
According to this concept, "management is an art and science of decision-making and leadership." Most of the time of managers is consumed in taking decisions. Achievement of objects depends on the quality of decisions. Similarly, production and productivity both can be increased by efficient leadership only. Leadership provides efficiency, coordination and continuity in an organization. Leadership and decision-making concept as given by some authors is given below:
I. Donald J. Clough, "Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership".
II. Ralph, C. Davix, "Management is the function of executive leadership anywhere."
III. Association of Mechanical Engineers, U.S.A., "Management is the art and science of preparing, organizing and directing human efforts applied to control the forces and utilize the materials of nature for the benefit to man."
IV. F.W. Taylor, "Management implies substitution of exact scientific investigation and knowledge for the old individual judgment or opinion, in all matters in the establishment."
According to this concept, "management is an art of increasing productivity."
Economists treat management as an important factor of production. According to them, "Management is also a factor of production like land, labor, capital and enterprise." The main followers of this concept of management are John F. Mee, Marry Cushing Niles, F.W. Taylor etc. The productivity concept, as given by the authors is given below:
I. Jon, F. Mee, "Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum prosperity with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service."
II. F. W. Taylor, "Management is the art of knowing what you want to do in the best and cheapest way."
III. Marry Cushing Niles, "Good management achieves a social objectives with the best use of human and material energy and time and with satisfaction of the participants and the public.
According to this concept, "Management is universal". Management is universal in the sense that it is applicable anywhere whether social, religious or business and industrial. The followers of this concept are Henry Fayol, Lawrence A. Appley, F.W. Taylor, Theo Haimann etc. According to-
I. Henry Fayol, "Management is an universal activity which is equally applicable in all types of organization whether social, religious or business and industrial".
II. Megginson, "Management is management, whether it is in Lisbon, or in London or in Los Angeles."
III.Theo Haimann, "Management principles are universal. It may be applied to any kind of enterprises, where the human efforts are coordinated."