What are the limitations of management?
Management is a social science. Hence, management is subject to certain limitation like other social sciences. The main important limitations are as follows:
The principles of management are not static; with the growth of science and technology, the concepts of management are also changing. Old ideas are being eliminated and new ideas being innovated, old products are being out and new products are being put on the market and now likes and dislikes are developing every year. Similarly, modern and scientific management it taking place of traditional management.
The narrow outlook of managers is also an important limitation of management. The habit of getting work done by others develops dictatorship and authoritarian attitude among the managers. Moreover work load is unnecessarily increased due to concentration of power in few hands only.
Flexibility in the principle
The techniques and polices of management are to be adjusted according to specific circumstances. For example, one principle may be good for one enterprise, but it may not be suitable for another. Similarly, a technique may be suitable for developed countries like England, America, Japan and Germany, but it may be unworkable in developing countries like India, Pakistan and Srilanka.
Effect of External factors
Management is the process of decision-making. But it is influenced by external factors. It has to operate within the economic fluctuations, policies of ruling party, interventional relations and climate conditions.
Changing social needs
Management is a social science. It studies social needs which are always subject to change due to which the society becomes more extracting and demanding while the management fails to fulfill the society's changing needs. Therefore, management should change its principles and policies as the society dictates.
Related to human behavior
Management is related with human behavior and the same is changing. Different groups and different men, even in the same group of people behave differently under different circumstances. According to Oliver Sheldon, "Management principles may be waste paper, where human beings are concerned."
Differences among organizational objectives, philosophies and exceptions
Although management is a universal concept and applicable to every kind of organization, however, there exist differences among organizational objectives, philosophies and assumptions between different organizations. Similarly, the nature, size business outlook etc. of every business organization is not the same. Hence, a person with specific knowledge and experience cannot manage all types of business organizations.
Management is culture bound
The culture and social customs of every country influence management. Social, political and religious environment put much influence on management. Man is the product of environment and the environment is fast changing. A manager has to take decisions keeping in view the cultural environment.
Profit oriented concept
Another important limitation of management is that, it is actuated by self-interest and pecuniary consideration. Managers give priority to their own interests, progress and profit as against the interest, progress and profit of the enterprise.
Actuated by self-interest and pecuniary considerations
Also another important limitation of management is that even today it considers maximization of profits. On many occasions, it neglects the social interests while working for the achievement of profit objective.