Sociological tendency in education made several thinkers in the field of education to discuss and classify the relationships between education and society. Education was considered as a sub-system of the larger society.
The character of society and social changes taking place must influence the system of education also. It was emphasized that these social changes and emerging social needs must be rejected in the theory and practice of education also.
This point was very mush emphasized by Dewey in his book, "The School and Society" wherein he said that while proposing to bring about a change in education the social point of new should always be kept in mind, otherwise it will be considered merely an arbitrary fad. "Education for the society" emerged as the focus of educational thought.
Education and Politics
The relationship between education and politics also was emphasized as an aspect of sociological tendency in education. Education for democracy was, particular emphasized.
Democratic aims of education, democratic methods of teaching- learning, democratic organization: of the classroom and the school, democratic discipline, etc., were several new concepts which were extensively discussed.
Education and Economic Factors
Sociological tendency in education forced the educational thinkers to analyze and see how economic factors affect education. It was realized that economic factors are important constraints of educational activities.
How they affect education and how education affects the economy of the society were some of the themes which emerged for discussion. A new kind of thinking began in the field of education.
Cultural Aim of Education
The sociological tendency in education resulted into a greater stress on cultural aim of education. It was emphasized that education help in the transmission of cultural heritage.
Sociological tendency in education resulted into a ranged approach to curriculum construction. These views took the form of sociological principles of curriculum construction.
It was emphasized that the curriculum should conform to the conditions, problems and needs of the society. A functional curriculum which could serve the needs of the society was said to be the need of the hour, curriculum for international understanding, curriculum for citizenship, curriculum for vocation, etc., were the ideas about curriculum which gained popularity as a result of sociological tendency in education.
The Method of Teaching
In the context of method of teaching, the sociological tendency resulted into considering the classroom and the school as the society-in-miniature. Hence, it was emphasized that teaching should take help of the principles of group dynamics.
Group methods of teaching, group discussions, social interactions, group planning, group activities, project method, etc., were considered important.
Thus, sociological tendency in education tried to approach education, its purposes, methods, content and other aspects from the point of view of the society and sociological forces working within it.
The impact of democracy on various aspects of Education
Impact of democracy on various aspects of education
In the following lines we are throwing light on the various aspects of education in a democratic set up:
Democracy and Aims of Education
In a democracy, the aims of education are as under:
1. Development of Democratic Values
The success of democracy does not depend upon Legislative buildings and massive structures of Parliament houses, but it rests upon the quality of the citizens devoted to democratic values. As such, the prime aim of democratic education is to promote in children a sense of devotion to democratic values.
No book teaching can achieve this aim unless children are provided with opportunities to practice democratic norms and standards of behavior. In fact, a child learns to live democratically by living democratically.
2. Development of Vocational Efficiency
For the success of a democratic set-up, economic contentment of citizens is a must. An indigent and poor person can be a victim of all kinds of allurements, inducements and exploitation by the resourceful and the powerful.
Hence, the third aim of democratic education is to develop vocational efficiency in children, so that they are able to become self-reliant and serve the nation as much as possible.
3. Development of Interests in Children
The third aim of democratic education is to develop useful and worthy interests in children. Interests form character and enrich a child's life. Hence, the famous educationist, Herbart has insisted upon the fullest development of diverse interests.
To achieve this aim, children should be provided with various and varied opportunities to participate in diverse activities and programmes in all fields of human life. If a large number of worthy interests are developed in children, they will be happy, well- balanced and efficient as citizens.
4. Development of Thinking Power
The fourth aim of democratic education is to develop thinking power of children. In fact, children of today are citizens of tomorrow when they will be confronted with all kinds of problems in political, social and economic fields. Education should develop in children the capacity to think clearly and take decisions confidently.
5. Development of Social Outlook
Development of social outlook is the sixth important aim of democratic education. This aim emphasizes upon, the fact that children should be imbued with the sense that they are the integral parts of society, the welfare of which should be their ideal. Not only this, they should learn to live and die for the nation.
Education should develop this sense of service and sacrifice making them learns the sacredness of obligations and duties for the welfare of the nation to which they belong.
6. Development of Sound Habits
The fifth aim of democratic education is to develop sound habits in children. Habits are the sources of good or bad conduct. Hence, education should develop good habits in children from the very beginning to make democracy a successful venture.
7. Development of Leadership
The seventh aim of democrat education is to develop leadership qualities in children. For this, education should instill in children the leadership qualities from the very beginning. They are the future citizens who will have to shoulder the multifarious duties and responsibilities of their nation in all areas.
Their character, strength of will, insight, courage of convictions, clarity of thinking and decision-making will be the foundations on which the national edifice will go up and up.
8. Development of Harmonious Personality
The eighth aim of democratic education is to develop the individuality of a child into balanced and harmonious personality. In the modem world of strife, stress and strain a balance and harmonious personality can only seek and find adjustment with the surroundings. Hence, education should develop character, dynamism social outlook for this purpose.
9. Development of National and International Feelings.
For the success of democracy, the ninth aim of democratic education is to develop in children the sense of ardent nationalism and devotion to international brotherhood. It may be noted that the two are not contradictory.
On the other hand, they are mutually complementary and supplementary. In fact a nation cannot exist in isolation.
All the nations of the world are mutually inter-dependent. Hence, education should foster the sense of inter-dependence, international good-will and fellow-feeling.
10. Training for Citizenship
Democratic education should impart of children training in dynamic and healthy citizenship. For this, education should instill in children-(1) Capacity to understand and solve the diverse problems of the country, (2) Capacity to distinguish between propaganda and reality, (3) Capacity to think and decide about issues, (4) Economic efficiency, (5) Consciousness one's rights and duties, (6) Capacity to shoulder responsibility, O) Development of diverse interests, (8) Sense of service and sacrifice, (9) Good use of leisure hour,(10) Development of human qualities as love, sympathy, fellow feeling, co-operation, sense of nationalism and internationalism, (11) Healthy and dynamic outlook about problems, good behavior and respect for moral values.