The term population explosion means rapid growth in population which affects the economic growth and progress of the per capita income of the people. The economy remains in Vicious circle of poverty. The consumption and nutrition standards of the people are low and they suffer from poor health and low productivity.
Causes of the rapid growth of population:
India experiences a very high rate of growth of population. The following are some of the major factors, which are responsible for high rate of growth of population.
Universal marriage system:
Marriage in India is universal. Everybody gets married. Marriage is considered not as a religious duty. The practice of early marriage system is a potent case of rapid growth of population in India. More than 80% of girls are married during the most fertile period of 15 to 20 years of age.
Some people in India prefer to have more than one wife. In the eyes of those people women are considered as commodities. They consider a matter of pride to own them. Behind such polygamy many factors are responsible some such rich people prefer this for their happiness. Those who did not have child from their first wife, preferred to have a second wife.
Preference for a male child:
Every family in India prefers a male child. There are some religious rites which can be undertaken, only by the males. So even if a couple has a number of daughters to on reproducing children till a male child is born.
Now widow marriage system is prevailing which helps in the id growth of population.
About 60 percent of the populations are below the poverty line. Most of the people remain in rural area. They also think that more children mean more income. The children help their percents in wages and family vocation and support the family.
It is the cause of high birth rate in India. The literacy rate- among the women is only 39.4 percent and male literacy is 63.9 percent. Illiteracy combined with poverty leads to ignorance, from belief in religious doctrilines and superstitions. Due to illiteracy people do not know the use of contraceptives arid modern method to crab the population.
Inadequate supply of effective Birth control devices: - The birth control devices are not sufficient and these are not available in a right time.
Causes of Decline in Death Rates
Control of famines and Epidemics:
In the early parts of the 20th century, there were frequent occurrence of famines and epidemics that broke out. There is no development of transport and communication facilities. The epidemics like cholera, malaria, and influenza broken out and took a heavy two of human life. Epidemics life plague, cholera and small pox are not seen in India. Modern medicines and surgical operation system has reduced the death rate in India.
Availability of medical facilities and public services:
A rapid decline death rate is the result of the availability of medical facilities and public health service. Provision of public drinking water and better drainage facilities have control epidemics. The opening of medical clinics, hospitals and public health centers in remote village of the country has provided medical facilities to the people.
Material and Child service:
Specific care has been taken now for the health of the pregnant and nursing mothers and new born babies. Better arrangements have been made for delivery of the babies.
As a result of these measures the death rate of pregnant women and new born babies has reduced a lot.
Remedial Measures to check the population:
Population explosion in India can be checked either increasing death rate or reducing birthrate increasing death is suicide method and this is not possible from the humanitarian point of view. So to check the population it is necessary to decrease the birth rate. The following measures may be suggested for lowering the high birth rate in India.
- Postponement of universal marriage system and marriageable age to reduced nom 18 to 20.
- Spread of education and emphasis on population Education curriculum in schools and colleges.
- Improving the status of the women both educationally and economically independent.
- Removal of poverty and economic disparities.
- Development of Rural sector.
- Industrial Development.