1. Improvement in technologies and switching to clean combustion technologies is highly essential. Coal with lower sulphur content is desirable to use in thermal plants.
2. Replacement of coal by natural gas would also reduce the problem substantially. Installing scrubbers to reduce smoke-stack emissions, though expensive, would be economical compared to the losses due to damage done to lakes, forests, monuments, food production and so on. Billions of dollars are spent in repairing the damage to buildings in Europe annually.
3. Acid rain can only be managed by managing the source of pollution. Some measures can be taken locally to neutralize the acid or by countering acidification Addition of calcium carbonate or calcium oxide to acidified water raises the pH of water. Regular monitoring of water bodies is essential. Emissions of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide should be minimized and checked.
4. Chlorine leak or discharge should be stopped. Vehicular exhaust should be minimized by using control valves or systems in the outlet of the exhaust pipeline of the automobiles. Effective burning of the fuel should be ensured by increasing the efficiency of the engines.
In India, acid rain is not a problem but recent information indicates acid rain in localized areas. In future, acid rain may become a major threat, which developed countries like U.S.A., U.K., Canada and Sweden.