What are the various threats to Biodiversity?

Extinction is the complete elimination of wild species: It is a Natural but slow process but due to unplanned activities of man, the rate of decline of wild life has been particularly rapid in the last one hundred years. There are a number of causes which are known to cause the extinction of wildlife.

Habitat Loss:

It is the most serious threat to wildlife. It is due to Environmental pollution.

Deforestation:

Deforestation leads to decrease in the area of movement so decreasing their reproductive powers. Main causes of its facing extinction are :

  • (1) Soil erosion
  • (2) Agricultural expansion
  • (3) Oxen grazing
  • (4) Increasing urbanization
  • (5) Forest affairs due to certain human activities or by chance
  • (6) Development works like dams reservoirs, made, railway lines. A compound, industries, mines etc.

Poaching of Wildlife:

Indiscriminate hunting for various uses of animals like food, hide, horn for recreation etc.

  • (a) Extinction of Dodo bird of Mauritius
  • (b) Extinction or cheetah, the fastest mammal of India

Other reasons:

  • Goats and rabbits introduced in the islands of pacific and Indian oceans are destroying the habitats of several plants, bird’s and. reptiles.
  • Congress grass has replaced herbs and shrubs in open spaces.
  • Water hyacinth has become dominant species in pools and ponds.

Over exploitation of natural resources:

  • Over fishing, mechanical catching of animal species etc. is a serious threat to the wild life.
  • Disturbance in migratory routes of animals like fishes due to construction of dams etc. so these are not able to reach their destination and face extinction.
  • International trade in animal products like medicines, perfumes cosmetics decoration, museum specimen etc is the cause of destruction of many species.

Highways:

A number of wild animals get confused and are run-over by the vehicles on the highways so decreasing their number.

Man wild-life conflicts:

Wildlife protecting bodies nod local people have undergone indirect conflicts. Local communities have been affected due to-

  • Loss of wildlife resources
  • Depletion of income

Income has depleted of rural population due to check on hunting, harvesting and illegal encroachment human elephant conflict is an increasing example. Elephants being cute and lovable are the cherish able animals. But if they are put next to your house they turbo violent leading to conflict with human.