The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. This device was originally developed by Charles Babbage. Most countries have developed fast due to computerization. Writing a program is essential for a computer. Speed, accuracy, reliability, and integrity are the main characteristics of a computer.
Many of the routine activities today at home and in business are done by computers. The computer has proved a friend and servant of science, technology and industry. Most offices, shops, factories and industries use computers. The Internet is a storehouse of information. The computer is a boon to all. Telecommunication and satellite imageries are computer based. Computers have made the world a global village today.
The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. It is an electronic device for storing and analyzing information fed into it, for calculating, or for controlling machinery automatically. Charles Babbage developed this device first in 1812 followed by George Boole in 1854, Howard and Aitten in 1937, Dr. John Nouchly and J. P. Eckert in 1946. These computers were named the first generation equipment. Today, wit the 'Artificial Intelligence' technology, we are using fifth generation computers. Each new generation of computers has been smaller, lighter, speedier and more powerful than the earlier ones. Now note-book sized computers like laptop are fairly common. Computers have been dominating technology since 1970s, and has now entered almost all walks of life.
Writing a program is essential for running a computer. This job is done by a software engineer. A computer program is a complete list of instructions which the computer accepts in order to solve a problem. There are many different languages that can be used to programme a computer. BASIC, COBOL, FOR TRAN, C, C++, JAVA and Visual Basic are some of them.
Speed, accuracy, reliability and integrity are some of the characteristics of a computer. It can execute over a million instructions per second without committing and mistake. It can carry our calculations in just a few minutes that would require days if carried out manually. It helps us in solving many difficult problems of multiple calculations. Computer has a huge memory. It can hold large amount of data. The software technology has seen a spurt of development and firms like Microsoft have established themselves as market leaders, pioneering the IT revolution world over. It has provided us with efficiency and accuracy in our work. Software acts as the medium through which communication and dissemination of information are carried out.
In less than 50 years, computers have influenced practically every field of activity. Many of the routine activities today are being performed by computers. Use of computers has reduced the paperwork. Now most of the work is done directly on the computers. The traffic in large cities is controlled by computers. Automation in banks and railway stations have provided relief to the public and staff alike. Ticketing and reservation have become more efficient and convenient. Various types of games like chess and cards can also be played on computers.
In medical diagnosis, computers are being used to locate and investigate accurately and precisely abnormalities and diseases. Business transactions and high volume of associated data are easily managed by using computers.
Computer is the backbone of information technology whose major application lies in internet. Internet has some very useful applications in our day to day life.
One can get railway and air tickets booked online. This saves one from the trouble of standing in a queue for long hours. One can also apply for a job or admission in a school or a college by filling the application form online. This saves time and energy. One can also see results of any examination on the Internet. Tax returns can also be filed on the Internet. Income Tax form can be downloaded from the Income tax website.
The interconnection of computers worldwide, i.e., the internet, is revolutionizing the concept and the conduct of business. Visual and audio access to offices worldwide through the network has given rise to virtual offices. One can have easy access to information via internet. It is an ocean of knowledge for the students. It is a huge library. The Internet helps the student to study for the examinations. Students pursuing courses through distance education mode can study the subject online. The internet is the fastest and cheapest way to take admission in a foreign institution, collect geographical information of any region, chat with anybody in any corner of the world or search for life partner of one's choice.
The importance of the internet as an all-pervasive medium of the future has been well recognized in India. A very important indicator is the number of businessmen jumping on to internet related business. E-commerce is gaining popularity in India as it allows trade at low costs and offers enterprises a chance to enter the global market at the right time. E-commerce helps in various aspects of the business including identifying the customer, promoting sales and advertising, handling orders, taxes, shipping, payment processing, etc.
The state governments and the central government have put special emphasis on computer education in India. Computer application is also beig extended to legal arena. The Supreme Court of India has become the first court in the country to provide e-filing of cases.
Computerization has created a lot of jobs for DTP operators, Programmers, Hardware an Software professionals. It provides tremendous openings for new kinds of entrepreneurs.
The computer gives us many benefits. They can be used as typewriters. When equipped with telephone modems, with the help of computer we can chat across the world. Teleconferencing and video conferencing are also possible. The internet helps us to keep in touch with family and friends. One can get information about every subject known to man, ranging from government law and services. trade fairs, conferences, market information, education, society and politics.
The computer has proved as a friend and servant to science, technology and industry. The computer through Internet expands business opportunities. Computerization has been done in business, banking, electronic publishing, engineering, creative designing, fashion designing, etc. It is used in railways, airlines, defence service, research establishments. postal and communication departments, meteorology, medical science, stock-broking etc. In defence, they help radars, missile and rocket launching. They have opened new avenues of shopping and entertainment.
Telecommunication and satellite imagery are computer based. Computerization can play an important role in rural areas in seed research, crop disease management and software development for rural industries.
The computer also has its negative side. The rise of cyber crime, the use of chat rooms for indecent discussion, certain websites, which deal in pornographic material have been noticed. But the advantages and importance outweigh the disadvantages. Through computerization, the world has become a global village today.