A country which is not self- sufficient in the production of food has to survive only at the mercy of others. It may lose much of its freedom and dignity. A nation which dreams of occupying an honorable place in the community of nations must first set its house in order and as far as practicable attempt to stand on its own legs. The consciousness has drawn upon Indian leaders even before the achievement of independence and as soon as our country achieved independence, they mobilized all their resources to promote the cause of agriculture. Our efforts did bear some fruit and we have reached in the vicinity of the solution of the food problem. This has only become possible due to “Green Revolution’.
Green Revolution means revolutionary change in agriculture in order to make a massive production. Green revolution has been effected not only in India but also in many other countries where food production is not at par with the size of population.
Now, India is facing an acute scarcity of food. The present food-shortage in India has given rise to famine-condition and most of the Indians are almost famished. In order to meet this situation the Government of India has launched the green revolution through a lot of schemes like block-development, community project, national extension and package programme. The Government of India has started this revolution in collaboration with the State Governments and with co-operation of the common Indian farmers, through the local organisations like village Panchayat and Zilla Parishad.
How it is effected and what have been done:
Green revolution is effected through a lot of things, such as high-yielding varieties of seed, natural and chemical fertilizer, good irrigation system, soil conservation, soil-test, rotation of crops, enough insecticides, mechanization of farming through power tillers, motor, tractors, water-pumps, electricity, large holdings, co-operative farming and educating and enlightening the farmers.
High-yielding varieties of seeds:
High yielding varieties of seeds are quite necessary to make a large output of grains. The Government of India brought highly productive seeds from other countries and tested them on our soil. Some of these kinds showed very good results. The Government of India founded some research centres where the scientists have discovered many kinds of high-breed (Cross-breed) seeds which can yield bumper crops in our corn fields.
Good manures like cow-dung, compost, bone-meal, super-phosphate and ammonia soleplate need to be applied to corn-fields. The Government of India has established a lot of fertilizer factories all over India, the first and biggest of which is at Sindhri in Bihar. Lastly, a fertilizer factory has been sanctioned to be raised at Talcher in Orissa and another at Paradip.
Good irrigation system:
Water is the greatest necessity for agriculture. In order to expand our canal-system, the Government has already made a lot of dams like ones at the Mahanadi, the Damodar and the Vakranangal. Many other dams are under construction. So, we find a network of canals throughout the country.
Soil conservation in corn fields is quite necessary for green revolution. The Government Soil conservation department is doing it through effective propaganda among the farmers to raise contour barriers around the plots.
We should get our soil tested through chemical method so that proper kinds of plant will be raised on proper fields. Government has established some soil-testing laboratories to help the farmers by testing their soils.
Rotation in farming:
The same kind of crops should not be raised in the same plot continuously for two years or more. Every year, there should be a change of crops. The change is necessary to maintain the strength of soil and to obtain a larger output.
Insecticides like Endrex and Pholidol are necessary to remove the harmful pests from the standing crops. Formerly, the Government of India was importing insecticides from the foreign countries. Now, it is going to set up some factories for producing her own insecticide.
Large holding and co-operative farming:
Large plots are necessary for the application of modern agricultural instruments. For this, consolidation of uneconomic plots are quite necessary. It can be done in our country through co-operative farming. Co-operative farming is also needful, because a single farmer cannot bear the huge cost of modern method of agriculture. The Government is now making laws and by-laws (Bye-laws) to bring about land-ceiling and co-operative farming.
Revolution means complete rotation or a great change. 'Green' refers to green crops or new grains. So, 'Green Revolution' means revolutionay change in agriculture in order to make a massive production. We have started green revolution in our country and we have been successful to a sizeable extent in it. Really, we have made a tremendous success in our wheat output in the Punjab and U.P. which enabled us to sustain the crores of people of Bangladesh during their famine and economic breakdown.