The word forest derived from Greek word 'foris' means outside. The dense growth of trees, together with other plants, covering an area of land and science concerned with the study, presentation and management of forests is forestry.
Forest is an ecosystem and about one third of world's land surface (4028 million hectares) is covered with forests. Forests are vast natural resources for man for fuel, timber, paper, fodder, water yield and animal products.
The deforestation results in lowering of ground water lands and rainfall and water are lost through runoff.
Forests are also necessary to check the floods and soil erosion, and are important for human recreation, wildlife, air and water sheds etc. forests serving the humans through protection, production, recreation, Hygienic, Industrial development.
The United States and Canada share 16% of the world's forests, the former Soviet Union contains 21%, Africa has 20% and Latin American has 24%. The actual forest area in World is 27% (34 million hectare). Indonesia 61%, Brazil 58% and in India 24% area is occupied by forest. In India the forest percentage is less than 33%.
The chief economic products of forests is timber, but the economic benefits, in time of climate control, pollution, wildlife maintenance, non timber products, soil retaining powers, effects to control deforestation including those at 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development remain ineffective.
To maintain certain forest conservation and management processes have to be employed in forests. Silviculture, horticulture and arboriculture department was established and weeding, thinning and brisling is also done in forest.
Constitution of India provides rule under Article 48 (A) and 51 (A) for conservation of forest and wildlife. Reforestation, Social Forestry, Farm Forestry, Chipko Movement, Dams are also used for conservation.