Proper utilization and management of nature and its resources is termed as conservation. International Union for conservation of Natural and Natural Resources (IUCN) define conservation as rational use of environment to provide a high quality of living for the mankind. Conservation is essential for life support system like air, water, land, flora & fauna, biodiversity and ecosystems.
Natural resources are conserved due to economic as their natural beauty and importance to local culture. Preserving biodiversity is essential for ecosystems to respond flexibly to damage or change.
An International treaty, the convention on International Trade in endangered species of wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) went into effect in 1975 and out lawned trade of endangered animals and animal parts. In USA, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted in 1973.
The conservation of wild life includes natural habitats, make them to reproduce and give rise to fertile offspring without human interference. Wild life Protection Act 1972 declares endangered (threatened) animals are now declared as protected animals.
The Indian Board of Wild life (IBW) works in collaboration with World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to conserve wild life with the assistance of Govt. This includes implementation of Wild life Act, species preservations, predator control, Tiger reserve and Habitat preservation. In India there are 400 wild life sanctuaries and more than 70 National Park for protection and preservation of wild life.
Forest conservation can be done by preventing fires, eradicates pest, resistant varieties of plants, reduces deforestation, increase afforestation, regeneration, conservation of soil depends upon the maintenance of vegetal cover, terracing and landscape and check soil erosion.
The measures like proper drainage, storage, use, flood control can be taken for conservation of water. Energy conservation require the use of renewable energy resource and alternative energy resource and in household energy can be conserved by turning down thermostats, switching off unnecessary lights, insulating homes and using less hot water.
The sustainable development as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' the United Nations Environment Programme says "The intensified and unsustainable demand for land, water marine and coastal resources resulting from the expansion of agriculture and uncontrolled urbanization lead to increased degradation of natural ecosystems and erode the life supporting systems that uphold human civilization.
Caring for natural resources and promoting their sustainable use is an essential response of world community to ensure its own survival and well being". Think and do the eco friendly exercises in life.