6 essential steps that should be followed in a demonstration lesson are:
We commonly find science teachers making use of demonstration method for teaching of geography. The conduct of a demonstration lesson is very difficult and here we will try to discuss some of the essential steps that should be followed in a demonstration lesson.
1. Planning and Preparation
A great care should be taken by the teacher while planning and preparing his demonstration lesson. He should keep the following points in mind while preparing his lesson:
(a) Subject matter,
(b) Questions to be asked;
(c) Apparatus required for the experiment
To achieve the above stated objective the teacher should thoroughly go through the pages of the text book, relevant to the lesson. After this he should prepare his lesson plan in which he should essentially include the principles to be explained, a list of experiments to be demonstrated and the type of questions to be asked from the students.
These questions are arranged in a systematic order that has to be followed in the class. Before actually demonstrating the experiment to a class the experiment be rehearsed under the conditions prevailing in the class room.
In spite of this, something may go wrong at the actual lesson, so reserve apparatus is often useful. The apparatus should be arranged in a systematic order on the demonstration table. Thus for the success of demonstration method a teacher has to prepare himself as thoroughly as a bride prepares herself for the marriage.
2. Introduction of the Lesson
As in every other subject so also in case of geography the lesson should start with proper motivation of the students. It is always considered more useful to introduce the lesson in a problematic way which would make students realize the importance of the topic.
The usual ways in which a teacher could easily introduce his lesson is by telling some personal experience or incident, a simple and interesting experiment, a familiar anecdote or by telling a story.
A good experiment when carefully demonstrated is likely to leave an everlasting impression on the young mind of the pupil and it would set his pupils talking in school and out of it, about the interesting experiment that had been demonstrated to them in the geography class.
This should be kept in mind not only to start the lesson but be used, on every suitable occasion, during the lesson.
The method of presenting the subject matter is very important. A good teacher should present his lesson in an interesting manner and not in a boring way. To make the lesson interesting the teacher may not be very rigid to remain within the prescribed course rather he should make the lesson as much broad based as is possible.
For widening of his lesson the teacher may think of various useful applications of the principle taught by him. He is also at liberty to take examples and illustrations from other allied branches to make his lesson interesting.
The life history and some interesting facts from the life of the great geographer whose name is associated with the topic under discussion can also be cited to make the lesson interesting.
Thus every effort be made to present the matter in a lively and interesting manner and a lesson should never be presented as 'dry bones' of an academic course. It is also advisable to make use of pictures, posters, diagrams, slides, films etc. in addition to experiments to illustrate the topic in hand.
Constant questions and answers should form part of every demonstration lesson. Questions and cross questions are essential for properly illuminating the topic being discussed. Questions be arranged in such a way that their answers form a complete teaching unit.
Though an effort be made to encourage the students to answer a large number of questions but if students fails to answer some questions teacher should provide the answers to such questions. It is unwise to expect all the answers from the pupil and a teacher should feel satisfied if he has been able to create a desire in a student to know what he does not know.
The lesson be presented in a clear voice and the teacher should speak slowly and with correct pronunciation. He should avoid the use of any bombastic and ambiguous terms. The continuous talk is likely to lead to monotony and to avoid it experiments be well spaced throughout the lesson.
4. Performance of Experiments
A good observer has been described as a person who has learned to use his senses of touch, sight, smell and hearing in an intelligent and alert manner. We want children to observe what happens in experiments and to have ample opportunities to state their observations carefully.
We also want them to try to explain what happens in reference to their problem, but we want to make certain. There is separation between observations and generalization and conclusions.
The following steps are generally accepted as valuable in developing and concluding science experiments with the children;
1. Write the problems to be solved in simple words so that everyone understands.
2. Make a list of activities that will be used to solve problems.
3. Gather material for conducting experiments.
4. Work out a format of the steps in the order of procedure so that every one knows what is to be done.
5. The teacher should always try the experiment himself to become acquainted with the equipment and procedure.
6. Record the findings in ways commensurate with the maturity level and purposes of the student.
7. Assist students in making generalizations from conclusions only after sufficient evidence and experiences.
The demonstration experiment be presented by the teacher in a model way. He should work in a tidy, clean and orderly manner while demonstrating an experiment. Some of the important points to be kept in mind while demonstrating an experiment are as under:
(i) Experiments should be simple and speedy
(ii) The experiments must work and their results should be clear and striking.
(iii) Experiments be properly spaced throughout the lesson.
(iv) Keep some reserve apparatus on the demonstration table.
(v) Keep the demonstration apparatus intact till it has to be used again.
5. Black Board Summary
A summary of important results and principles be written on the black board. Use of black board should also be frequently made for drawing necessary sketches and diagrams. The black board summary should be written in neat, clean and legible way.
Since black board summary is an index to a teacher's ability he should keep the following points in mind while writing on black board.
(i) Proper space is left between different letters and words.
(ii) Always start writing from left hand corner of the black board.
(iii) Start a new line only when the first one has extended across the black board.
(iv) Take care not to divide the words at the end of a time,
(v) Make all efforts to keep all the paragraphs and similar signs in calculations under one another.
(vi) While drawing sketches and diagrams preferably use 'single lined' diagrams.
(vii) All the diagrams drawn on the board be properly labeled.
Students are asked to take the complete notes of the black board j summary including the sketches and diagrams drawn. Such a record will be quite helpful to the student for learning his lesson.
Such a summary will prove beneficial only if it has been copied correctly from the black board and to make sure that students are copying the black board summary properly the teacher should check it by frequently going to the seats of the students.