S. E. USA, S. E. China, S. Japan, S. E. Brazil, East coast of Africa, under climatic conditions of high temperature and abundant rainfall
1. Distinct horizon development. A1 – Reddish/yellow, staining by Fe compounds: A2- Light coloured; B Horizon Dark colour (illuviated).
2. Pronounced leaching. Reason: High rainfall.
3. Little humus. Reason – Warmer region enhances pronounced bacterial activity.
4. Pedogenic process – Podzolization and laterization.
5. Very susceptible to erosion. Reason: Crust formation.
6. Productivity – Fertilizer responsive crop yield high.