Causes of population growth:
- High growth rate, decline in death rate, improved medical facilities and public health services are the primary causes of rapid population growth.
- Rapid means of transport and communication have facilitated rapid movement of food-grains from surplus areas to deficit areas. People now don't die due to epidemics, drought or famine.
- Decrease in infant mortality is also one of the causes.
Harmful effects of rapid population growth:
- Food problems. It is not always possible to increase the output of food to feed new mouths. Land is limited, hence increase in population decreases per capita land area for agricultural operations.
- Increase in unemployment. It has become difficult to provide employment opportunities to the vast army of unemployed.
- Difficulty in capital formation. Increase in population has resulted in decrease of savings and capital formation.
- Bleak future of Five-Year Plans. Rapid growth in population is associated with drought, famine or war or political disturbances. As a result, Plans are never successful. Set targets are never achieved. The national, as well as per capita income does not increase by the same rate as planned and envisaged.