Characteristics of covalent compounds are
1. Covalent compounds are made up of neutral molecules. Hence, the forces of attraction between the molecules are weaker than those found in ionic compounds. Therefore, covalent compounds are usually volatile liquids or gases.
2. The melting and the boiling points of covalent compounds are generally low. Since covalent compounds are made up of neutral molecules, the forces of attraction between the molecules are very weak. So, a comparatively small amount of heat energy is required to break these weak intermolecular forces of attraction. Hence, covalent compounds have low melting and boiling points.
3. Covalent compounds arc insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
4. Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity. This is because covalent compounds are made up of neutral molecules, not ions and they do not produce ions in the molten state or in aqueous solution.