Read this article to learn about:- 1. Meaning and Significance of a Research Design 2. Different Components of Research Design.
Meaning and Significance of a Research Design:
The formidable problem that follows the task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the design of the research project, popularly known as the ‘research design.’ Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design.
“A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.”
In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data.
More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of:
(i) What is the study about?
(ii) Why is the study being made?
(iii) Where will the study be carried out?
(iv) What type of data is required?
(v) Where can the required data be found?
(vi) What periods of time will the study include?
(vii) What will be the sample design?
(viii) What techniques of data collections will be used?
(ix) How will the data be analysed?
(x) In what style will the report be prepared?
Keeping in view the above sated design decisions; one may split the overall research design into the following parts:
(i) The sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study.
(ii) The observational design which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made;
(iii) The statistical design which concerns with the questions of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analysed; and
(iv) The operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out.
From what has been stated above, we state the important features of a research design as under:
(i) It is a plan that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research problem.
(ii) It is strategy specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analysing the data.
(iii) It also includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints.
Different Components of Research Design:
Decisions regarding what, where, when how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy procedure. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.
It is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible fielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
A good research design should be flexible; appropriate, efficient, economical etc. In general the design that minimise bias and analysed is considered a good design. Design to be the best in many cases.
Components of Research Design:
(i) Dependent and independent variables.
(ii) Extraneous variable.
(iv) Confounded relationship.
(v) Research hypothesis.
(vi) Experimental and Non-Experimental hypothesis-testing research.