The solid component of the earth is called lithosphere. It consists of three parts: crust, mantle and core.
The most effective method of controlling air pollution is definitely to prevent the formation of air pollutants or to reduce their emission at the source itself. This can be achieved by using pure grade materials, modifying the process of formation, as well as the technologies.
Many aquatic species disappear due to the acidification of lakes.
About 90 per cent of the atmospheric ozone is in the stratosphere from 10 to 50 km and is known as ozone layer.
We are very familiar with the term ‘Global warming’. What does this mean? What is it’s consequence on life on earth? Which materials are responsible for this? All these will be discussed here.
Climate is the average weather of a place as determined by temperature and various meteorological conditions such as precipitation, wind, glaciations and also by the frequency of extreme events such as typhoons, hurricanes, etc. The most important attribute of climate change is however the variations in temperature.
This region extends from the earth (about 8-10 km at the polar latitude, 12 km at the moderate latitude and 18 km at the equator).
This is very important, as it determines the density and diversity of organisms as well as their development and functional status. The energy flow in an eco-system is always unit-directional in nature.
These resources neither have a life-cycle nor can be recycled, for example, mineral deposits, soil, fossil fuels like coal and petrol once used cannot be regenerated and are exhaustible, as their deposits are limited.
The Industrial Revolution changed the lives of people in Europe in a most dramatic way. It brought them from the countryside to the city in search of jobs; it changed their life patterns, created new tastes and recreations. Most significantly, it saw the organization of production of goods on a scale never known before.
Some historians have suggested that these processes of democratization took place in the course of ‘the long nineteenth century’, the period from 1760 to 1919, beginning with the Industrial Revolution and ending with the First World War.
The Ottoman Empire, China under the Ming’s and India under the Mughals were at the same stage of development. They suffered from one major drawback, however, and that was their domination by a centralized authority which did not provide conditions conducive to intellectual growth.
Those who were worried about the way manufacturers and the market could draw the consumer into a net that ensnared him in different ways-both making him buy goods he did not really “want” and also providing him with shoddy goods- quickly sought to set up bodies that would prevent this.
State takeover of forests and the harnessing of forest resources for industrial development had its effect on the nature of the forest. Often, mixed forests had to give way to monoculture stands of species like pines, which were more suitable for construction and industrial needs.
Demographics or demographic data are the characteristics of a human population as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research.
At present at least five cores of Indians live under army rule. This is partly due to the violent activities of the non-state actors. The post-colonial state inherited several colonial legacies.