Environment broadly consists of all living and non-living things including soil, water and atmosphere. The factors like rain fall, humidity, temperature, sunlight etc. have major effects on the environment and life support constituents, a good environment. A good environment provides all the life supports and so any change in it has profound effect on various components of environment. in the recent times the activities of man is mostly responsible (or-all changes in the environmental components. These changes if not properly regulated may destroy the human civilization. the changes in the environment cause by man due to various activities are: (a) population increases, (b) resource demand (c) deforestation, (d) pollutants creations (e) loss to biodiversity.
(a) Population increases:
The world population has now reached 6 billion mark, India and China combinedly have more than 30 percent of world’s population. India alone has more than 1 billion according to recent census. The increase of population puts pressure on the limited resources of the world. The growth trends of population of living organisms have shown some distinct trends like: (a) J-shaped and (b) S-shaped. The J-shaped from shows exponential increase in number and then when a particular number is reached, a crunch occurs due to changes of resources and pressures on the ecosystem. The environment does not support an exponential growth of living species. In the s-shaped growth the increase is slow in the beginning and then rapidly and then slows down till equilibrium is reached. The stage of equilibrium is the balanced print of ecosystem for a sustainable growth of living earth.
(b) Resource demand:
Resources like energy non-renewable, air, water, soil, minerals etc. are limited and is obtained from the nature or environment. Renewable energy like solar, wind etc. is not exhaustible. But requires special technique to explore and use. Over population and mindless exploitation for selfish use put pressure on the natural resources of earth. These pressures are felt for all living creatures of earth and destroy the balance of nature.
Forest plays an important role to maintain a good balance in the ecosystem. A minimum percentage of forest area is necessary for a good environment and life support needs like oxygen and water. The rapid increase in population and due to urban needs the forest is fast “losing its resources and becoming barren land”. This has to be checked and a good forest area has to be maintained for better living for all.
(d) Pollutants creation:
The release of various pollutants to the environment is a human activities due modern like style and rapid industrialization. Various factories and industries are releasing many poisonous substances to water, soil, and air by way of solid water or gas. These pollutants are responsible for desirable for decreasing the natural resources by polluting it.
(e) Loss of biodiversity:
The major cause of loss of bio-diversity is due to the following:
- Habitat destruction by man for his need like food (agriculture land, shelter, timber to man home) clothes etc.
- Haunting of wild life.
- Pollution caused from different sources.
- International trade for biological resources.