Learn the most important facts about Carbon and its compounds. The most significant factor about Carbon is that it servers as the central element in the structure of living world. If you have more facts and figures about Carbon and its compounds then please share it in the below given comment system.
Carbon is the central element in the structure of living world.
Carbon forms a very large number of compounds which are studied under organic chemistry.
In the crystalline form, carbon exists as graphite and diamond- its two allotropic forms. Amorphous carbon the non-crystalline form of carbon.
Diamond has a rigid crystalline structure which makes it the hardest known substance. It is, therefore used in cutting and drilling rocks.
Cut and polished diamond is very lustrous. It is, therefore, used in jewellery as a precious stone.
In graphite, carbon atoms are arranged in layers which are loosely joined to each other.
Graphite is a good conductor of electricity and has a high melting point.
Graphite is used as a high temperature lubricant, as electrodes, in making crucibles for making the lead in pencils, for making artificial diamonds, and for making printer’s ink and black paint.
Amorphous carbon exists as charcoal (wood, animal and sugar charcoal), lamp black, coal and coke.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is present in air, about 0.03 percent by volume.
Caron dioxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on marble chips (calcium carbonate)
Carbon dioxide is colorless, odorless, denser than air, and slightly soluble in water. It freezes at 78 degree C to form dry ice.
Carbon dioxide does not burn and does nor support combustion.
Carbon dioxide is an acidic oxide. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. It reacts with alkalis to give salts (carbonates) and water.
Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky by forming insoluble calcium carbonate.
Carbon dioxide is used in aerated drinks, in fire extinguishers, in refrigeration (in the form of dry ice), during photosynthesis by plants, in the manufacture of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, and urea.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed when fuels containing carbon burn in an insufficient supply of air.
In the laboratory carbon monoxide is prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on oxalic acid.
Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless gas. It burns in air with a blue flame to form carbon dioxide. It reduces metal oxides to metals.
Carbon monoxide is extremely poisonous. It stops oxygen from reaching the tissues by reacting with hemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin.
Mixtures of carbon monoxide and other gases are used as fuels. It is used to extract metals from their oxides and in the manufacture of methanol, synthetic petrol and phosgene gas.
Same common carbonates and bicarbonates are sodium carbonate (soda ash), calcium carbonate (limestone, marble and chalk), and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). They are used for various purpose.