Prediabetes is the state in which some but not all of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes are met. The term “pre-diabetes” is used that your blood sugar level is higher than normal, where the body’s cells begin to show resistance to insulin and the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be classified as full-blown diabetes (type 2 diabetes) normal blood sugar are between diabetic levels. The condition of “pre-diabetes” are used to be called borderline. Pre-diabetes is also called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. When you eat food, your pancreas excrete insulin into your bloodstream, and insulin circulates that allow sugar to enter your cells where the body can use it for energy. The amount of sugar in your bloodstream lowers by insulin. As your blood sugar level drops, so the secretion of insulin from your pancreas reduces. When those have prediabetes, this process begins to work improperly. This process occurs when your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or your cells become resistant to the action of insulin or both.
The CDC estimates that in USA more than 57 million adult between the ages of 40 and 74 have prediabetes.
The exact cause of prediabetes is unknown, despite the fact that researchers have discovered some genes that are related to insulin resistance. But the most important factors in the development of prediabetes are look like overabundance of fat — specifically abdominal fat — and inactivity.
Tests used to diagnose prediabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends blood glucose screening if you have any risk factors for prediabetes. This includes if: overweight, inactive, age 45 or older, a family history of type 2 diabetes, history of polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure,
Abnormal cholesterol levels, including an HDL cholesterol below 35 mg/dL or triglyceride level above 250 mg/dL.
To diagnose and determine prediabetes or diabetes commonly two different blood tests are used. One is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a blood sample will be taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you’ll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. With this test, a blood sugar level lower than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is normal. A blood glucose (blood sugar) levels from100-125 mg/dl after an overnight or eight-hour fast is diagnosed as prediabetes. The second is the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) known as the fasting blood sugar test, measures and is used to diagnose diabetes in non-pregnant adults. If you have prediabetes, further testing may be needed to diagnose prediabetes. For example, for check up fasting blood sugar total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides at least once a year, possibly more frequently if you have additional risk factors for diabetes.Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months, which measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells .Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. A blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL or higher may indicate diabetes.
Your doctor may also recommend an annual microalbuminuria test, which checks for protein in your urine — an early sign of damage to the kidneys.
The symptoms of hypoglycemia may vary from one person to another, Most people with prediabetes don’t have symptom. But research has shown that long-term pre-diabetes can damage to the heart and circulatory system, other conditions associated with diabetes are High blood pressure Low levels of HDL, High levels of triglycerides. Consult your doctor if you’re notice any type 2 diabetes signs or symptoms — increased thirst and frequent urination, fatigue, and blurred vision.
Prediabetes Risk Factors
The primary risk factor for prediabetes is obesity and overweight low physical activity, increase risk of heart disease and stroke. Obesity is a major risk factor for developing pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes.
A family history of diabetes or prediabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity can put you at higher risk of developing pre-diabetes.. Lowering risk of pre-diabetes will help to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes later. The risk of certain races — including African-Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders — are more likely to develop prediabetes.builds up in the blood, it can damage the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes, and nervous system.
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy risk of later developing diabetes increases. If women gave birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms), are also at increased risk of diabetes.
Polycystic ovary syndrome in women increases the risk of diabetes.
Inadequate sleep increases, Research suggests that regularly sleeping fewer than 5.5 hours a night might up your risk of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.
Prevention and Lowers Risk of Type 2 in People with Pre-diabetes
Living a healthy lifestyle can help many people with prediabetes to delay or even prevent it from ever progression. Changes that can help prevent prediabetes and diabetes are weight control, and changes to diet and exercise habits exercise, and blood pressure Can Prevent Pre-diabetes. Studies have shown that moderate physical activity just 30 minutes a day, such as cycling, swimming, or brisk walking, along with managing and reduction in body weight about 5-10%, helps prevent -and manage – diabetes and has been shown to produce a 58% reduction in progression to type 2 diabetes.
Pre-diabetes can be treated without medication. Pre-diabetes is treated by lowering high blood glucose levels through exercise and by following a healthy, low-fat meal plan. These same healthy lifestyle changes can also help prevent pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes
By Hiwa malekzadeh
Medical student of Islamic Azad University branch –Sharoud
Sharoud, Islamic Republic of Iran