The Computer Essay Introduction:
Today man’s scientific knowledge is very wide and highly advanced. It has helped him to discover and invent many things for his ease, comfort and efficiency. Computer is the latest and most brilliant child of science.
Origin of Computer:
Charles Babbage developed the first analytical engine in 1812. This machine had the concepts of modern computers namely memory, arithmetic unit and capacity to handle stored programme. But this machine could not be put into practical applications due to technological limitations tat that time.
First Generation Computers:
In 1854, George Boole, invented the logic system which is the basis for today’s digital computers. In 1937, the first electro-machine calculator was developed by Howard and Aitten. In 1946, the first computer came into existence. It was named ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator). It was developed by Dr. John Nouchly and J.P. Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania, USA. In 1951, Remington Rand Corporation of USA brought out a commercial computer named UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer). These computers had the shortcoming of value technology. They were slow in operations and unreliable. These computers were named the first generation equipment.
Transistor Technology gave advent of second generation of computers. These were smaller in size, but more reliable and had higher speed of operation. A 2nd generation computer consisted of IBN-370 type. The fourth generation computer, presently manufactured by USA, Japan and other European and Asian countries are based on large scale integration. Better computers are under trial in USA and Japan. These are based on artificial intelligence. They will think the human brain, collect most information from their reservoir of memory, and make expert judgment and decisions.
Use of Computers:
Many of the routine activities in today’s society are being performed by computers. For example, when we go on holiday our seats are often reserved with a computer. The traffic in the some major cities is, to a large degree controlled by computer. Many of the bills we pay are calculated and printed by a computer. Hence computer has marked a new era in the history of development of man’s life.
Because of its extremely high seed, a computer can carry out calculation in just a few minutes that would require months perhaps even years if carried by hand. This very high speed is accompanied by an equally high level of reliability. Thus a computer practically never makes a mistake of its own accord. Computers are devices which process information very fast. These machines can be programmed and can be made to perform repetitive type of calculations consistently, accurately and speedily.
Computers cannot ‘think’ in the way humans can do. They can do what they are told. Finally, it is important to appreciate the once a computer has been given a piece of information, it is always capable of ‘remembering’ it at any time. In this sense, it is far superior to human being. The computer, however, can always find any piece of information that it has in store, and this data can be reproduced tomorrow, or in years to come, exactly in its original form provided that nobody has deliberately changed it.
Writing of a programme is essential for computer, and it is the job of a specialist. A computer programme is the complete list of instructions which the computer performs in order to solve a problem. There are many different languages that can be used to programme a computer.
Computer has a bright future. We all need is to look ahead and to mark the changes coming in the world on account of computer and profit from it.