Presently every year 25 million, acres of land are become barren and non-productive areas because of misuse and mismanagement some of the agents are responsible for land degradation or soil pollution.
These agents are:
- Soil erosion by deforestation.
- Over grazing.
- Mining activities.
- Solid waste disposal.
- Agricultural practices etc.
Soil Erosion by Deforestation:
Forests have economical value. They help to control climate by influencing wind temperature, humidity and rain fall. They add oxygen to the atmosphere and by regulating the downstream flow of water it help to control soil erosion.
Soil erosion is a natural process by which the earth’s crust constantly eroded under the forces of weathering. But human activates accelerate the disappearance erosion which can be checked by forestation.
Cattle’s are the domestic animals resulted to over grazing of uncultivated and forest lands. The absence of ground vegetation causes soil erosion, gradual depletion of soil organisms and ultimately the land is transformed into waste land.
In open cast mining a complete removal of top soil results the loss of productive areas in underground mining when the mine is abandoned it leads the depression of whole area and then it becomes a waste land.
Soil Waste Disposal:
Any discharged non-liquid waste material generated from domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural activities is termed as soil wastes. This may be agricultural waste fruits and vegetables, animal wastes and aquatic wastes community wastes and agricultural wastes.
The impact of agricultural practices includes unskilled irrigation, use of chemical fertilizers use of pesticides and the practice of shifting cultivation.
Steps and Measures to Check Land Pollution:
The following steps and checks to be made to control land pollution:
- To prevent deforestations speed up deforestation programmed and green plantation programmed to check soil erosion.
- Covering the soil with trees and grasses to protect them from rain and wind.
- Reclaim the land waste due to mining by intensive plantation programmed.
- Encouraging shifting cultivation.
- Use of biological control of pests and fertilizers.