What is an environment?

The environment means the surroundings, the conditions that surround us and affects us in many ways. It constitutes the A-biotic elements like air, water, soil, light, energy, humidity and temperature etc.

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According to W.B. Sawyer, “Environment refers all the surroundings”.

According to T. N. Khishoo “Environment is the sum total of the conditions that affect the development of life of all the organizations”.

Importance of environmental are as follows:

  • Environment or environmental study helps us to know about natural and artificial environmental and its elements.
  • It provides the knowledge why living beings exists on earth but not on other planets.
  • It reveals “how the organisms are structurally adopted and functionally adjusted to their physical environment.
  • It helps us to know the distribution and bad impacts of rapid growth of population.
  • It indicates how environment is polluted and affect badly to human existence.
  • It gives an idea about the cause of diseases, and its remedial measures.
  • It reveals the biological productivity of nature.
  • It suggests for various policies to implement for the improvement of environment and its proper management.

Types of Environment

Environment is broadly classified into natural environment, artificial environment, “biological environment and socioeconomic environment”


(i) Natural environment:

The natural component that surrounds us is natural environment. They are free gifts of nature. Such natural environment includes air, water, light, soil, forests, plants, and animals etc. all living being along with many are natural components of the ecosystem. The natural environment gets change of seasons.

(ii) Artificial environment:


These are human made. The objects of our surrounding which are manmade are artificial environment.

(iii) Biological environment:

The biological environments include all living organisms that surround us.

(iv) Socio-economic environment:


The social institutions which build the capacity of and rules formulated! For the sure growth and development of man, community and culture. This called the socio-economic environment.

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