What is hydrosphere and what are its constituents?

The hydrosphere constitutes of water (rain, hail, sleet, snow and water vapor), biosphere – body fluids, lithosphere – ground water, juvenile water, water of hydrogen, swamps, ponds, lakes, ice and snow cover and hydrosphere – marine seas, oceans water etc.

Types of microbial habitat: 1. Hydrosphere 2. Lithosphere ...

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Water: an environmental factor.

Water is an important ecological factor in both plant and animal life. Natural water is found in three forms such as – (i) atmosphere moisture (ii) precipitation, (iii) soil moisture.


Atmosphere moisture is present as invisible vapor as humidity and visible vapor as fog or cloud. Precipitation or rainfall is the main source of soil moisture. The soil, meets the water, capillary water and water vapor.

Sources of water:

Streams, Lakes Rivers and reservoirs and ground water and wells. Rivers, streams are the good sources of water for any category of users. In lakes the water is stagnant.

Water cycles:

(1) Man usually uses fresh water for personal and other purposes. Oceans are reservoirs of salt water. The evaporation of this water by sun’s heat energy and subsequent precipitation on land helps to meet the requirements of man.


(2) The precipitation falls on the ground on vegetation and on buildings and part of the precipitation reaches through the soil and collected by impervious layer of rock or clay. This is used by mend for various purposes.

(3) Some of the precipitation runs down the drains and ultimately reaches the rivers, ponds, lakes and oceans.

(4) Water from the oceans, rivers, ponds etc. gets evaporated by sun’s heat energy. Water remains line the atmosphere in vapor from and then forms clouds and drifts with the winds. When these clouds meet cold air, the vapors in the clouds condense and falls as rain due to gravitational pull (force).

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