It is prepared at the end of the accounting year on the basis of cash receipts and cash payments recorded in the cash book. It simply is a summary of cash and bank transactions under various heads. For example, subscriptions received from the members on different dates which appear on the debit side of the cash book,shall be shown on the receipts side of the Receipt and Payment Account as one item with its total amount. Similarly, salary, rent, electricity charges paid from time to time as recorded on the credit side of the cash book but the total salary paid, total rent paid, total electricity charges paid during the year appear on the payment side of the Receipt and Payment Account.
Thus, Receipt and Payment Account gives summarized picture of various receipts and payments, irrespective of whether they pertain to the current period, previous period or succeeding period or whether they are of capital or revenue nature. It may be noted that this account does not show any non cash item like depreciation. The opening balance in Receipt and Payment Account represents cash in hand/cash at bank which is shown on its receipts side and the closing balance of this account represents cash in hand and bank balance as at the end of the year, which appear on the credit side of the Receipt and Payment Account. However, if it is bank overdraft at the end it shall be shown on its debit side as the last item. Let us look at the cash book given in the example to show how the total amount of each item of receipt and payment has been worked out.
1. It is a summary of the cash book. Its form is identical with that of simple cash book (without discount and bank columns) with debit and credit sides. Receipts are recorded on the debit side while payments are entered on the credit side.
2. It shows the total amounts of all receipts and payments irrespective of the period to which they pertain . For example, in the Receipt and Payment account for the year ending on March 31, 2007, we record the total subscriptions received during 2006–07 including the amounts related to the years 2005–2006 and 2007-2008. Similarly, taxes paid during 2006–07 even if they relate to the years 2005–06 and 2007–2008 can also be recorded in this account of 2006-07.
3. It includes all receipts and payments whether they are of capital nature or of revenue nature.
4. No distinction is made in receipts/payments made in cash or through bank. With the exception of the opening and closing balances, the total amount of each receipt and payment is shown in this account.
5. No non-cash items such as depreciation outstanding expenses accrued income, etc. are shown in this account.
6. It begins with opening balance of cash in hand and cash at bank (or bank overdraft) and closes with the year- end balance of cash in hand/ cash at bank or bank overdraft. In fact, the closing balance in this account (difference between the total amount of receipts and payments) which is usually a debit balance reflects cash in hand and cash at bank unless there is a bank overdraft.
Steps in the preparation of Receipt and Payment Account
1. Take the opening balances of cash in hand and cash at bank and enter them on the debit side. In case there is bank overdraft at the beginning of the year, enter the same on the credit side of this account.
2. Show the total amounts of all receipts on its debit side irrespective of their nature (whether capital or revenue) and whether they pertain to past, current and future periods.
3. Show the total amounts of all payments on its credit side irrespective of their nature (whether capital or revenue) and whether they pertain to past, current and future periods.
4. None of the receivable income and payable expense is to be entered in this account as they do not involve inflow or outflow of cash.
5. Find out the difference between the total of debit side and the total of credit side of the account and enter the same on the credit side as the closing balance of cash/bank. In case, however, the total of the credit side is more than that of the total of the debit side, show the difference on the debit as bank overdraft and close the account.