The environment has four basic components like atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Biosphere is defined as that part of the earth in which life exists. It is holding communities living both in aquatic and terrestrial media. Life doesn’t exist in the pinnacle of highest mountains, deepest region of deserts or extremely polluted regions. Life only inhibits a small portion of earth, the surface layer of soil, upper few meters or few feet deep in oceans.
Biosphere zone of active biological production, through photosynthesis varies from the zone of active biological production.
Composition of Biosphere:
Biosphere is composed of all living beings in its entity from simple to complex, from man to microbe and from plant to animals. The all living organism on earth are confined to a thin mantle of atmosphere, (gas and water vapor), hydrosphere (oceans) and lithosphere (earth crust), biosphere is that environment of the earth that supports life. Biosphere is composed of three A-biotic environments namely hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere and all components are dependent to each other.
Nature or characteristics of biosphere:
(1) Water as a vast dispersion medium:
Organisms which actively metabolizing water seems as a dispersion medium for vast system of organic molecules. Thousands of marine plants, simple to complex, mostly plank tonic are found on the upper layers and on which dispersed in water, sea water covers approximately 71% of earth’s surface.
(2) Active productivity and biomass formation in the biosphere:
Biosphere gets its energy from sun. Sun is all ultimate powerful sources of energy for both aquatic and land plant production, through photosynthesis. Plants have great significance in productivity, production of greatest organic yield with the aid of soil, water and air in presence of radiant energy (sunlight). Plants serve as repository of energy for living members of good chain and largest producers of biomass. Photosynthesis is beneficial to sustain of biosphere by producing more oxidized biosphere and producing energy for growth, reproduction and physical activity.
(3) Biosphere is a store-house of element:
Biosphere is a store of elements, both in organic, which have great importance to biological system. such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and phosphorus etc. these vital elements reutilized by living system in some form, i.e. carbon and carbon dioxide gas , oxygen as a gas or as water with combination of hydrogen, nitrogen as nh3 (amino), groups in amino acids that form, aided by solar energy.