The environment around us directly affects and influences the life and development of the organism. The organism and the physical features of the habitat from an eco-system. According to Odum, “The eco system is the basic functional unit of organism and their environment interacting with each other”. According to Tensely, “Ecosystem is a functional unit where biotic and a-biotic components of the environment inter play with each other”.
Pond as an ecosystem:
The pond like other ecosystem has two types of components like – (1) the living components (Abiotic) and (2) the non-living components (Abiotic).
The living organisms also divided into different types depending upon their feeding.
(i) The phytoplankton’s and rooted plants which can covert solar energy into food and hence and called Utotrophs (producers).
(ii) All the organisms which depend upon the Autotrophs for their food are called Heterotrophs.
The biotic component consists of (1) producer (autotrophic plants) (2) consumers (heterotrophic organisms).
(i) Herbivores (ii) Carnivores
(3) Decomposers heterotrophic organisms, detritus eating and nutrient releasers.
The main producers in a pond or lake ecosystem are aquatic plants , floating or suspended or rooted at the bottom , the green plants convert the radiant energy into chemical energy and store in the form of food such as Hydrilla, Trapa, Lemna, Wolffia etc.
In pond ecosystem, the primary consumers are tadpole larvae, fishes and other aquatic animals are the food for secondary consumers.
Decomposers and transformers:
When aquatic plants and animals die a large number of bacteria fungi, attack their dead bodies and convert the organic substance into simpler organic compounds and elements. These micro organisms are called decomposers.
The Abiotic component consists of water, dissolved and particulate substances and dissolved gases like Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Minerals. The biotic and Abiotic material interact with each other and makes pond a dynamic ecosystem.