Latitude affects the temperature of a place. As we move towards the places, it gets colder. That is why Beijing is colder than Singapore.
Temperature also varies with altitude in the troposphere. This is known as the lapse rate of temperature. For instance, Mt. Kilimanjaro is near the equator and yet it is covered with snow all year because it is very high, 9895m.
Nearness to a water body:
Since land heats up and also cools down faster than water, the air resting on the land mass also gets warmed or cooled accordingly. Differences in temperature between the land and the sea cause differences in pressure and set up onshore and offshore winds that cause a moderating influence on the climate of coastal areas. As a result, places near the sea have a moderate climate all year. i.e. Mumbai, Kolkata while places far form the sea experience extremes of temperature in both the summer and winter, i.e. Delhi, Nagpur, Lucknow.
Direction of winds:
Places located on the same latitude but in the path of different prevailing winds at times have sharp differences in their temperatures. You already know that onshore winds, coming from water bodies, bring in moderating influence of the sea to the land. Winds coming from the polar region bring along freezing conditions. On the other hand, the offshore winds from the hot deserts are hot, dry and dusty. In fact winds transport the conditions of the places of their origin to distant lands. Places located on their paths are affected accordingly.