Fertilizer is one of the major methods of advanced agricultural practices and the use of fertilizers increases the crop yields and restores the lost soil fertility.
Types of fertilizers:
Farm yard manure, sewage, sludge, bone meal etc. are traditional natural fertilizers. They are spread over the fields before plugging. The bone meal consists of crushed animal’s bones rich with phosphorus and nitrogen and enriches the soil.
Chemical fertilizers are artificial fertilizers. They are super phosphate of lime which adds phosphorous to soil. Ammonium sulphate provides nitrogen to soil potassium sulphate adds potassium slaked lime as good soil conditioner.
Bio-fertilizers are a group of living or multi-cellular plants like blue-green and micro organisms that can harness atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into nitrogenous compound in the soil through biologic process there by supplying the required nitrogen nutrient for growth of rice and other crops.
Effects of Fertilizers on Agriculture:
Natural fertilizers like bone meal rich with phosphere and nitrogen that enriches the soil and increases the soil fertility. Humus, the natural fertilizer consists of soil polysaccharides and phenolic constitutes which set a soil conditions. It provides a condition amenable to the growth of a variety of soil microbes. Chemical fertilizers increase production. Synthetic fertilizers like chemical: nitrogen fertilizer and phosphates reduce soil strength. Biological fertilizers help in increase in height of plant, number of filler, grain and straw. Excessive use of inorganic fertilizers leads to accumulation of nitrates in water.
Phosphates support luxuriant growth of algae and which cause deterioration of water resources.
Nitrogen is the major nutrient in pollution by agricultural operations and may cause suffocation and death of beneficial birds and animals to agriculture.