After reading this article you will learn about the application of pressure for removing dirt from clothes. The applications are: 1. Application of Friction 2. Application of Light Pressure 3. Application of the Principles of Suction 4. Washing Machine.
1. Application of Friction:
Friction is applied for washing of cotton, linen, and other strong materials. Friction may be applied by three means.
i. Hand rubbing:
It is used for cleaning of small articles like a blouse, handkerchief etc. Slightly soiled fabrics can be washed with hand rubbing process.
Requirements are hot water, a basin, and a dry soap. Wring out the garment from the steeping water. It may be hot or cold according to the nature of dirt. Apply soap all over the fabric holding it between the hands. Rub one part of the material on another which causes the formation of lather in sufficient amount which cleanses the fabric. Then rinse the fabric. Repeat the process if it is still dirty. Then dry it outside.
ii. Special Scrubbing by Brush:
This method is applied to the fabric which is very dirty or greasy, for e.g. the cuffs, neckbands of the shirt, the leg part of chudidar and other portions of the fabric which are very greasy.
Requirements for this method are hot water, wooden board, dry soap, scrubbing brush and a basin. After wetting the fabric with hot water, spread on a flat surface and apply soap throughout the fabric. Scrub the fabric in one direction away from the person who is washing either with the hand or with the help of a brush. Sufficient lather can be formed by this method. Sprinkle some water on the surface of the fabric while scrubbing. Rinse the fabric in hot water for removal of dirty soap.
iii. Rubbing and Scrubbing:
Both rubbing and scrubbing methods are applied for very dirty clothes, especially bed sheets, bedcovers, household linens etc. In this method friction is applied by beating the fabrics with a wooden stick or against the hard floor or scrubbing board.
Requirements are scrubbing board, tubs, dry soap, a wooden stick and hot water. Wet the fabric with hot water. Spread it on scrubbing board and apply soap all over it. Rub the dirty part on the board to form sufficient lather.
If necessary, beat the fabric with the help of a wooden stick or against the hard floor or scrubbing board. In this method, more friction is applied. The clothes are then squeezed of dirty soaps and rinse in Hot water. Continue this process till the removal of the dirt and grease for the fabric.
2. Application of Light Pressure:
This process is applied while washing fine textured, coloured and delicate fabrics. Coloured cotton, silk, woolen and lace materials are washed by this method. This process consists of kneading and squeezing the fabric by hand in soap solution.
Kneading and squeezing method:
The pressure applied in this method is very light. So the texture and colour of the fabric can be easily preserved when this method is applied in a washing process.
Requirements are a basin or bowl, warm water, soap flakes or soap solution, retinue solution etc. Soap solution is to be made with hot and cold water. The correct temperature should be maintained. The fabric should be immersed in this solution knead and squeeze the fabric at a time. The dirty parts may be lightly rubbed with the hands. Kneading and squeezing of the fabric should be done for 5 to 10 minutes. Continue this process till the dirt is removed completely from the fabric. Then rinse first with warm water and then with cold water to remove the soap solution from the fabric.
3. Application of Suction or Suction Washing:
All types of fabrics can be washed by this process. It is generally used to wash heavy materials which are not suitable to clean by kneading and squeezing method and the fabric which cannot stand friction.
Requirements are bucket, soap or detergents, warm water, suction washer. Prepare soap solution either with soap or detergent in a bucket of warm water. Immerse the fabric in soap solution for 10 to 15 minutes. Press it with the suction washer, so that the fabric is saturated with the solution. Then move the suction washer up and down over the cloth by pressing it. Continue this process till the fabric is cleaned thoroughly. Then rinse the fabric with water to remove the soap solution from the fabric.
4. Washing Machine:
In modem society, the use of washing machine is very common in town areas. Clothes can be cleaned within a very short period of time with the help of washing machine. There are two parts in a washing machine. A container and a perforated cylinder in the container which revolves and agitates the clothes in soap solution. The rotation is brought by electricity. Another part of the machine is for drying of clothes by removing the excess moisture from the garments. Some machines are automatic and some are semiautomatic. Washing machines of various brands are now available in the market.