Subsidiary book may be defined as a book of prime entry in which transactions of a particular category are recorded. In other words, in order to save time and energy, the transactions which are of similar character are recorded in separate books, these are called subsidiary books or subdivision of journal. A number of subsidiary books are opened to record all business transactions. In practical system of book-keeping, subsidiary books are:
Transactions held in cash or by cheque are recorded in this book. There are two sides in a cash book. In the left hand side all cash receipts are recorded and in the right hand side all cash payments are recorded. Cash Book is of five types: single column cash book, double column cash book, triple column cash book, bank cash book and petty cash book. In the single column cash book only receipt of cash and payment of cash are recorded.
In the double column cash book, receipt of cash, receipt of cash discount, payment of cash and cash discount allowed are recorded. In the triple column cash book along with the transactions which are recorded in double column cash book, cheque received and cheque paid are recorded. In the bank cash book the receipt of cheque, payment of cheque, cash discount allowed and cash discount received are recorded. In the petty cash book only small payments of cash are recorded by the petty cashier.
All credit purchase of goods are written in this book. Cash purchase of goods and credit purchase of assets are not recorded in this book. Other names of purchase book are purchase day book, purchase journal, bought journal, inward invoice book etc.
All sales of goods are written in this book. Cash sale of goods and credit sale of assets are not recorded in this book. Other names of Sales Book are Sales Day Book, Sales Journal, Sold book, Outward Invoice Book etc.
Purchase Return Book:
It may be necessary to return some goods that the firm has bought on credit for a variety of reasons. All returns of such goods are recorded primarily in Return Outward Book. This book is also known as Purchase Return Book.
Sales Return Book:
Goods may be returned by the customers for a variety of reasons. All goods returned from customers are recorded in Sales Return Book. This book is also known as Return Inward Book.
Bills Receivable Book:
When credit sales of goods are made the purchaser gives his guarantee to make payment in future in the form of bill. When the seller receives such bill, it is Bill Receivable for him as he will receive payment in future against such bill. In case a business house receives a number of bills, a Bills Receivable Book is maintained to record all such bills.
Bills Payable Book:
When credit purchases are made by a firm it gives a guarantee to the seller to make payment in future in the form of a bill. This bill is said to be Bills Payable for the firm as he will pay for the bill in future. A Bills Payable Book is opened to record all such bills.
It is a subsidiary book maintained to record the transaction which cannot be recorded in other special subsidiary books. Usually the transactions of infrequent character are recorded in the journal proper. The entries like adjustment entries, opening entries, closing entries, transfer entries, purchase and sale of assets on credit, interest on capital, interest of drawing etc. are recorded in journal proper.