Policies used for Implementing the Directive Principles in India are as follows:
1. Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Legislation:
To remove extreme concentration of land ownership in the rural areas, Zamindari Abolition Acts have been affected.
2. Revamping of Rural and Urban Local Government Institution:
In accordance with the directive to organise panchayats and other local government institutions, the State has organised Panchayati Raj system in the rural areas.
The Panchayati Raj institutions have been given adequate powers and authority. In urban areas, institutions like municipal councils, improvement trusts, town planners, and cantonment boards, have been established.
By 73rd Amendment Act, the Panchayati Raj institutions and by 74th Amendment Act Municipal institutions have been expanded and strengthened.
3. Special Protection of the Interests of the Weaker Sections of Society:
The State has taken steps to provide educational and health facilities to the persons belonging to weaker sections of society. Reservation of seats in educational institutions for the persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other backward Classes has been affected.
4. Special attempts aimed at Protection of Women and Children:
The state has enacted several laws for protecting the rights and interests of women and for preventing them from exploitation. The Dowry Prohibition Act was passed in 1961. In 1956, the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act (SITA) was passed.
Criminal Law Amendment Act 1983 provided for punishment of rape with a minimum of seven years imprisonment. Indecent Representation of Women (prohibition) Act 1986 has prohibited the denigration of women in photographs, advertisements and films. In 1987 Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act was passed by the Parliament. Now a law has been passed for the prevention of domestic violence against women.
5. Provision for Equal wages and abolition of Child Labour:
The provision equal wages for equal work for both men and women has been given a legal foundation. The State has made the employment of child labour a crime under the industrial Act.
6. Labour Welfare Legislation:
Several laws like, the Factories Act 1948,Mines Act 1952, Plantation Act 1951, Maternity Benefit Act 1961 etc., have been made for protecting the interest of the workers. Minimum wages have been fixed.Health and accident benefits have been granted to the workers. The hours of work, compensation rates, provident fund, pension and gratuity benefits, health insurance, free/subsidised medical health through schemes like employees state insurance facilities etc., have been introduced. Workers’ participation in management of industries has been secured.
7. Encouragement to Small Scale and Cottage Industries:
The State extends help and encouragement to small scale and cottage industries. Several board have been set up for the promotion of cottage industries—All India Khadi and Village Industries Board, Small Scale Industries Board, Silk Board, All India Handicraft Board, All India Handloom Board, the Coir Board and several other such boards have been established for the purpose.
8. Development of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry:
The State has taken several steps to develop agriculture and animal husbandry. Establishment of agricultural universities, dairy research centres, cooperative milk plants, agro-industries, fertiliser plants etc. have been undertaken. The state has been trying to make agriculture a profitable enterprise for the farmers.
9. Free and Compulsory Education:
Several states have introduced free education for the children belonging to weaker sections of society. Laws have been made for compulsory primary education. Steps have been taken for spreading adult education and women education. The state of Kerala has achieved cent per cent literacy. Now provisions for compulsory education of the children have been incorporated in the constitution.
10. Steps towards the Raising of Living Standards:
For the raising of the living standards of the rural people, the state has been implementing various programmes and projects. Within the broad framework of Community Development Programme several projects have been undertaken to develop rural industries, handicrafts and cottage industries. Integrated Rural Development Programme, National Rural Employment Programme, Self-Employment Programmes and some others have been operationalised. Attempts have been made to secure better housing, better sanitation, better civic facilities, improved education and better communications in urban as well as rural areas.
11. Abolition of Bonded Labour:
The evil practices of Beggar and Bonded Labour have been abolished by law.
12. Introduction of Prohibition:
The State has taken steps for introducing prohibition. However, the problems involved in securing total prohibition have forced the State to encourage prohibition through proper education, publicity and mass media. Every attempt is being made to check the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs. Stringent laws have been made to prevent the smuggling of narcotics into India.
Through Five Year Plans, the State has been trying to realise the objective of rapid industrialisation, technological advancement and economic development. Ten Five Year Plans have been implemented and the 11th Five Year Plan is currently being implemented.
14. Legal Reforms:
The State has appointed a Law Commission. Provision for providing free legal aid to the poor has been made. Through the system of Lok Adalats, and Public Interest Litigations an attempt is being made to make justice easily available to the people.
15. Panchsheel and Non-alignment:
The Government of India has adopted Panchsheel and Non-alignment as the fundamental features of the Indian Foreign Policy. India has always adhered to the principles of peace through peaceful means, development of friendship and cooperation with all the states, promotion of world peace, peaceful resolution of conflicts and aloofness from cold war, alliance politics and unhealthy power politics.
16. Adult education, women education and promotion of equality between men and women:
The State in India has been active towards the securing of women uplift, enchancement of female literacy and securing of an equal place for women along with men. Women now inherit property and they get recruited in all services including the defence services.
17. Free and Compulsory Education for Children:
By the 86th Constitutional Amendment, the Indian state has implemented the Directive Principle contained in Article 45 by making right to education a fundamental right of the children of the age group of 6—14 years.
Besides these, the State has enacted laws for protecting historical monuments and other objects of historical significance. Laws have been enacted for pollution control and protection of environment. Several other social welfare measures have been initiated. Thus the State has shown a definite commitment towards the implementation of the Directive Principles.