United Nations and other agencies have tried to analyze the causes of high death rate, particularly up to 19th century, almost throughout the world. It has been found, that the most important reasons for high mortality rates were as follows:-
10 Causes of High Death Rate:
1. Famines and Food Shortage:
During the period of 100 Ad to 1885 AD almost 450 localized families were recorded in Western Europe. The famine situation was even worst in Asia. Famine was due to food shortage and such insufficient food supply resulting into malnutrition disease and deaths.
Until two thousand centuries back scientific knowledge about disease didi not exist and, therefore disease took a heavy toil of human life. These included typhoid, dysentery, small pox, malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, yellow fever and plague. Child morality was also very high due to diseases like measles, whooping cough, diphtheria etc.
3. Recurrent Wars:
Many people have died due to recurrent wars in different countries. In 20th century two great wars brought death of such a wide magnitude in such broad area that war is considered to be the most impact and causes of deaths.
4. Poor sanitary conditions:
During pre-industrial period the sanitary condition were very poor. In most of the environment were filthy. Most of the cities suffered from overcrowding and poor sanitary conditions up to 13th Century. The use of soap was almost unknown.
5. Educational attainment of Parents:
Education attainment of parents is an important. Morality differential. It is so because the educated parents have a better living standard and more knowledge about health. In 1986 in Bombay the infant mortality rate low among the mothers with educational attainments.
Occupation affects greatly morality rate. As compared to skill laborers and workers engaged in different agricultural persist to death rate among unskilled and Non- agricultural laborers is more.
7. Socio-economic status:
It have proved to be an important morality differential in different countries. As, socio-economic-economic states rises rate of morality falls and vice-versa. As a general rule morality rates are low within a middle class socio-economic status. Morality rates are generally higher at the lowest socio-economic level.
Heredity also influences morality level. From studies it is concluded that there is positive co-relation between the life span of parents and their children.
9. Marital Status:
It has been established by many studies that the general morality rates among unmarried persons are much higher than the married males and females. One of the reasons for this is due to fact that no limit healthy person find to marry, while among married persons the number of unhealthy sick is quite high. Secondly, married persons are more secured and protected.
10 Urban-rural Differences:
Morality rate in the village is higher than morality rate in the urban areas for example, in India death rate in 1972 was 16.9 of which the rural death rate was 18.9 and the urban death rate was 10.3, Rural –urban differential in death rate is active in India due to the availability of medicine or medical facilities in urban areas and their it availability are scare in rural areas.