1. The consequences of migration are complex, affecting the economic and social systems of both areas of origin and destination.
2. The economic consequences on the area of origin (involving the sending of remittances), are usually regarded as positive, although they can produce negative features such as inflated land prices and increased consumer spending on imported items.
3. Depopulation can be a serious consequence of migration in areas of origin, with young innovators often being the first to leave.
4. The economic impact on areas of destination is seen on the whole to be positive, although there are costs involved, such as the provision of housing and other services to migrants and their families.
5. The social consequences of migration on destination areas are debatable. The establishing of new cultural groups can produce cultural tensions but can also enhance the host community.
6. The impact of movement on the migrant often depends on the existence of a supportive receiving population and the ability of the migrant to adapt to the host community. Very often, however, migrants face prejudice and even violence.
Migration can have significant effects on population distribution, composition and growth. Areas of net emigration become depleted of young adults whereas regions of net immigration show an increase in the proportion in that age group.
In the former, reduced growth generally results, owing to reduced birth rates; in the latter, growth is encouraged, owing to an increase in birth rates.
Yet the consequences of migration are far wider ranging and more complex than just these population changes, for it involves, in addition, the movement of culture, technology and way of life.
The movement of people undoubtedly leads to a flow of capital, which may give rise to economic expansion in areas of net immigration and economic contraction in areas of net emigration.
The social problems that may be created by migration are not new. Wars in Canada during the 18th century and in South Africa at the end of the 19th century resulted from the intermingling of diverse migrants.
Sometimes it can engender greater understanding between people and so help preserve peace. Certainly it could be argued that the universality of the English tongue, English standards and English institutions has done much to provide a bond of friendship between nations all over the globe.