What is demography?

The term,” Demography”, is derived from Greek words ‘Demos’ which means ‘ the people’ and ‘Graphy’ which means ‘to draw or write’. Thus demography means to draw or write about people.

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Demography is the scientific study of human population involving the statistical measurement of the size, growth and the diminution of the number of the people, the proportion of living being born or dying within the same area or region and the related function of fertility, morality and marriage .

According to Von Maoyer Demography is the numerical analysis of the sate and movement of population inclusive of census enumeration and registration of vital process and of whatever qualitative analysis can be made the state and movement of population on the basis of fundamental census and registration data.

Scope and subject matter of Demography:

The following are the scope of Demography:


Size of population:

The number of people dwelling in a given area at a given time, its comparison with previous period and the future projection are import and element of the size of population. The causes of change, like natality, morality and migration are analyzed with the use of biological, social, economic and culture variables.

Composition of population:


Composition of population covers all measurable characteristics of the people who form a given population. The most widely used characteristics are age and sex, rural and urban residence marital status, occupation, education, religion etc. are some other characteristics in the composition of population.

Distribution of population:

Under we study how population are distributed in the world is rural and urban distribution of people.

Labor Fore


Labor force is an important field of economic study and such labor force falls into two classes such as – (i) economically active labor force which include employed and involuntarily unemployed labor. (ii) Economically dependent or innative labor force which includes houses wives, students fixed income recipients etc:-

Population Policy

A proper population policy has become an inevitable adjunct of population since the socioeconomic development of a country.

Nature of Demography

  1. It employs scientific study and method.
  2. The observations are presented systematically.
  3. Demography makes factual study of population census as the principle method of study.
  4. Demography defines causes and effect relation to events social reaction and in social facts.
  5. Demography can predict about social relations events etc.

Importance of Demography:

Demography presents population data in a systematic manner. It importance can be felt in the manner below.


The factual demography give the information the rate by which the number of vote are increasing. This will help in identifying the voters and by which the arrangement is done for conducting elections.


  • It helps in farming economic progress which can contribute to economic development.
  • The Assessment of economic development with rate of growth in population can be made.
  • It helps to court the growth and modernization of economy.
  • It focuses on the dimension of unemployment.
  • Demography give the information of per capita income and production.

Economic planning:

With the help of population figure alone the planning authorities would be able to allocate resources to the various section of the economy.

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