Basic components of scientific management are:
(1) separation of planning from doing (2) functional foremanship (3) determining ‘fair day’s work’ and one best way of doing it (4) differential piecework system of wage payment and (5) bilateral mental revolution.
The basic components of scientific management as propound by Taylor are:
(1) Separation of Planning From Doing:
He has emphasized that planning function should be separated from actual performance and should be assigned to specialists.
(2) Functional Foremanship:
Taylor’s concept of functional foremanship is in direct contrast to the unity of command and is now being advocated in the management of industrial and commercial enterprises. In this system eight persons are involved to direct the activities of workers.
Out of these, four persons viz:
(i) route clerk,
(ii) instruction card clerk,
(iii) time and cost clerk and,
(iv) disciplinarian are related with the planning function and remaining four viz
(i) speed boss,
(iii) maintenance foreman and
(iv) gang boss are concerned with operating function.
(3) Determining ‘Fair Day’s Work’ and One Best Way of Doing It:
There is one best way of doing a job which requires least movement, less time and cost. His main efforts were to increase the efficiency of human beings and machines through time and motion study, which have been referred to as the cornerstones of the scientific management. He had to take recourse to these studies for determining a ‘fair day’s work’.
(4) Differential Piecework System of Wage Payment:
Taylor realised that workers were not producing as much as they were capable of. This he described to as “systematic soldiering”. To get over this problem, he introduced differential piece rate system which is of a highly motivating nature.
He pleaded that wages should be based on individual performance and on the position which he occupies. The rate should be fixed on accurate knowledge and not on estimates.
(5) Bilateral Mental Revolution:
The essence of the scientific management according to Taylor is mental revolution. He advocated complete mental revolution on the part of the workers on one side and the owners and management on the other side.
Management must create congenial working conditions for optimum efficiency of the workers. It should perform the decision making function and should always try to co-operate with the workers. The workers should also change their attitude towards the management.
They should not be work shirkers. They should free disciplined, loyal and sincere in completing the work given to them. They should not indulge in wastage of resources. Both the management and workers should trust each other and co-operate in achieving maximum production.
Taylor held that “without this complete mental revolution on both sides scientific management does not exists.” This mental revolution had three facts: all out efforts for increased production, creation of the spirit of mutual trust and confidence and inculcating and developing the scientific attitude towards problems.