Technology, global competition, and ownership changes through privatization and transnational mergers have all resulted a phenomenon of ‘doing more with less’ and a consequent reduction in workforce for improving competitiveness.
In infrastructure—transport, telecommunications, and banking, for instance—and in areas where the competition is global, it is becoming imperative to use advanced technologies regardless of their impact on employment.
New technologies usually displace unskilled workers and reward skilled workers. They also eliminate dirty, dangerous, and drudgery aspects of work. Some of the new chemicals/materials may, however, entail new and unforeseen dangers and ill-effects on the health of the workers and communities in which they are processed or through which they are transported.
Usually firms using advanced technologies shrink employment relatively, and expand the scale of business. Generally transnational companies use advanced technologies more intensively than domestic companies in developing countries. While these may become the transmission belts for best practices, their effects on employment and the environment are often viewed with concern.