Training of employees
The employees must have the theoretical and practical knowledge of the work he is required to perform. The theoretical knowledge can be gained in educational institutions but for the practical knowledge taking is required. In this way, the training acquaints the employees with the real situations of the work and helps him in the faultless accomplishment of the work.
Training as Defined by Management Experts
According to Jucius, “The term training is used here to indicate only process by which the aptitudes, skill and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.”
In this words of Dale S. Beach, “Training is the organisation procedure in which people learn knowledge and / or skill for definite purpose.”
In this way, training is the organized procedure by which the knowledge, ability, competence, skill, personally and productivity are increased.
Objective/ Need/ Purpose of Training
To make labor force more useful
Training familiarizes the employees with the object of the organisation and work he had to perform, workers learn to operate equipments efficiently and increase their utility in the organisation.
Increasing the efficiency of employees
Workers are acquainted with the real situations of work. Its tools and equipments and environment. They have to work practically. They are not required to follow ‘trial and errors’ method for efficient performance of work like untrained employees.
Familiarity with the working conditions
Workers learn to work properly in the real situations of work. Labor force employed in the factory belongs to different parts of the country. They are unfamiliar with each other. Training is essential to change their habits, approaches and thinking. It also helps in bringing coordination among employees.
Familiarity with the equipments and methods
The trainee learns to operate the up-to-date machines and equipments. He also learns the methods of work.
The morale of employees
Trained workers know their jobs well and they are satisfied with their work. The satisfaction increases their morale.
Advantages / Need of Training
It is not enough to make the selection of right men for the appropriate jobs, but it is necessary to acquaint them with the real situations of work and effective methods of operating machines and equipments. Training is the only means to achieve this end. It imparts the practical knowledge of the work. It is also necessary to make workers alert and active. Training is useful for both employers and employees. It increases productivity of the workers and the output for the organisation. The benefits of training can be summarized as below:
(A) Advantages to the Business
Increase in production and productivity
The trained worker becomes efficient in this work. His productivity is increased and as such production also increases.
Proper use of machines and equipments
A trained employee has the knowledge of operating requisite machines and equipments. He handles them properly and methodically. The appropriate use of tools and equipments enables the most suitable use of resources.
Due to the operational efficiency of the trained workers and the complete knowledge about the working of plants and machines chances of accidents are reduced.
Improved quality of goods
Goods manufactured by trained workers are superior in quality as compared to goods produced by untrained workers. This is due to the application of right method, technique and handling of equipments.
Helpful in the development of the business
Due to improved quality of goods at minimum sacrifice, cost of production is reduced, proper use of resources also results in economy. The competitive strength of the organisation becomes better than other organisation. All these factors help in the development of the business.
(B) Advantages of Training to Employees
A trained worker has better chances of getting job as compared to untrained workers.
Increased efficiency and productivity
Trained worker has the practical experience of real situations of the work and knowledge of equipments which increases his efficiency and productivity.
The trained employees can easily adapt the up-to-date modern methods, technique and changes in the work.
Compensating incomplete education
Our incomplete system of education provides only general education. The training process practical education as regards specific work. It means the training completes what the education failed to do.
A trained employee has theoretical and practical knowledge of the work. He develops self-confidence and works with overall command of situations. The satisfaction due to successful accomplishment of the job boosts his morale.
Increase the mobility
Trained employee knows his job well and he can easily shift from one place to other place and from one organisation to other organisation.
Methods of Training
The process of training has been in practice since ancient days. The training in olden days was imparted by master artists, known as ‘Guru’ or ‘Ustad’. The trainee had to have with ‘Gurus’ and learn the job with him but, now due to the change in the social structure, the following methods of training are adopted:
On the Job Training
- Vestibule training
- Apprenticeship training
- Orientation/ induction training
- Job rotation training
Off the Job Training
- Internship training
On the Job Training
This is the method of training, where workers learn by doing. Workers are placed on the job. They work under the guidance and supervision of supervisors or certain experienced employees. They carry out orders and instructions and follow the technique of operations advised by them. IN this way, they are able learn the work practically. Problems faced by workers are immediately tackled; doubts, if any are removed and effective leadership is offered. In this way, he goes on learning step-by-step by doing practically his job, reaches masterly level.
Methods of ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
Workers are trained in the special separate part of the organisation in specific job. The training is imparted by specialized and experienced experts. The learner gets both theoretical and practical knowledge. After the successful performance of the training, workers are placed on similar jobs in the factory.
In order to achieve masterly level learning, the trainee should be kept under the guidance and supervision of experienced experts in the field of longer periods. The method familiarizes with the complications and intricacies of the job. This is the older method of training and is still prevalent in construction works. Plumbers, machines are its examples. It is a common practice to refer candidates from technical institutes of reputed ventures to have an apprentice training for about six months.
In India apprenticeship training is governed by ‘Apprenticeship Act, 1961’ According to this act a contact must be signed between the enterprise and the trainee regarding apprenticeship. A copy of the contract must be registered with Apprenticeship authorities.
Orientation or Induction Training
The training is imparted by a competent and experienced executive, who provides knowledge about the work, tools, equipments, techniques and situational problems. Under the training programmes trainee is acquainted with the policies, objectives, rules, programmes and strategy of the enterprise. The object of the training is to make the employee aware in the ideologies of the working.
Job Rotation Training
It is a broad based training, wherein the employee has to rotate from one job to other job, from one department to other department, from one section to other section and from one work to other work, so that he may learn the working of various departments. The rotation method enables the employee to acquire the general background of activities being performed in the organisation.
Off the Job Training
In case of complicated and technical jobs, where more understanding, skill and experience is required, training is imparted off the job. Many big enterprises, institutions, banks, hotels etc. have their own staff training colleges, schools and institutes, where off the job training is imparted. Important off the job methods are as under:
In order to make effective coordination between theoretical education and practical training, this method is adopted. In medical, auditing, management and lawyers’ profession internship training is essential. The candidates while in institutions, or sometimes even after theoretical education receive internship training in hospitals, courts, management institutions and auditing firms.
The method makes familiar with the complications and intricacies of the work but on the other hand, this method is time consuming.