What are the main techniques of scientific management?
In order to achieve the desired result through introduction of scientific management. Fallowing techniques are:
- Work Studies
- Administrative standardization
- Deferential piece rate system
The ultimate end of scientific management i.e., to maximize production at minimum cost. It therefore, necessary that best possible contribution from every sector should be obtained. It requires scientific security of every factor, influencing efficiency with a view to effect improvement therein. This critical examination is known as work studies. Now work study is classified as:
After careful study and analysis of jobs, methods for every job are standardized. These methods are to be applied to eliminate the defects of hit or miss method of traditional management. It can be simplified by operations by:
- Simplifying the use of tooth and equipments.
- Eliminating unnecessary actions and movements.
- Integration of identical activities.
- Reducing the distance between the place of storing and consuming raw material.
- Improving the storing and inspection facilities.
Every action requires certain motions, such as moulding, holding folding, putting, fining, moving, removing, carrying and pressing etc. The purpose of the motion study is to eliminate unnecessary motions and to rainforce unnecessary motions. Mr. Frank Gilbreth identified seventy basic motions involved every in human operation. These motions are given as under:
- Search (sh)
- Select (st)
- Grasp (G)
- Transport empty (Texv)
- Transport loaded (TI)
- Hold (H)
- Release load (RI)
- Position (P)
- Proposition (PP)
- Inspect (I)
- Assimble (A)
- Disassemble (DA)
- Use (U)
- Unavoidable delay (UD)
- Avoidable delay (AD)
- Plan (Pn)
- Rest for every coming fatigue (R)
As per the Frank Gilbreth, “motion study is the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from unnecessary, ill-directed and inefficient motions. The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the schemes of the least waste methods of labor.
Every job, or if necessary parts thereof, are studied as regards their nature and the time taken by different employees in the performance of the job is noted and the time taken by the overage worker is standardized. Every worker is expected to perform the job in the standard time. Purpose of Time Study no doubt restricts carelessness of employees, differentiates between efficient and inefficient workers. Increases the efficiency of workers and helps in the development of the enterprise. Following operations includes the Time Study as:
- Selection of the average worker.
- Sub-dividing the work.
- Standardizing time taken by the average worker for other workers.
- Time taken by different employees in performing that piece of work.
- Time taken by the average worker in normal conditions.
When a worker is required to work continuously, his seal, speed and efficiency in the work goes on diminishing. That means, he is tired and needs rest to capture his energies and refresh himself. Thus, fitigue in the work is natural to every worker in his day to day work. Scientific management studies the nature of job and determines the standard time when the worker on the specific job will be tired and need a rest. The nature, time and the period of rest is also predetermined. So, necessary changes may also be made in the working methods and conditions to reduce the fitique.
According to Taytor maximum objectives of the business can be achieved only when the raw material, labor, machines, equipment, method and techniques are standardized and predetermined, so that nothing could be left the trail and error. Following are the important form of standardization:
Standardization of product
To make standardization of product state the product of produced articles, their design, size, type, weight and quality of the product must have uniformity. Thus, standardization of product must be based upon the needs and tastes of customers.
Standardization of raw material
Maintenance of standardization of product is possible, if the raw material used in the different operations are standardized. Thus, use of standard raw materials in production of product reduces the wastages, improves quality of production and it simplifies productive operations.
Standardization of machines and equipments
Use of machines and equipments for production is most appropriate and economical use of resources. Thus, machines took and equipments used in the different operations are standardized.
Standardization of methods
Methods and techniques of production should also be predetermined after careful study and testing, otherwise considerable amount of time and energy may be lost in the selection of methods of production. So, determined the most suitable method for every operation of production.
Standard working conditions
An efficient manager should make the requisite arrangements for working atmosphere conditions such as, space, lighting, temperature, ventilation and refreshing atmosphere of work roves the improvement in production efficiency and quality of product and the workers.
Administrative reorganization is otherwise called as functional foremanship. Administrative reorganization as functional foremanship is advocated by F.W. Taylor. That means the appointment of specialist foreman for specific job. He classified specialized foremen into two departments viz. planning and production department and thus differentiated his views from the traditional approach, wherein foremen were responsible for both planning and productive activities. Both the departments have four foremen each. Following are the names of specialist foremen.
- Route Clerk
- Instruction Card Clerk
- Time and Cost Clerk
- Shop Disciplinarian
- Gang Boss
- Speed Boss
- Repair Boss
Differential Piece Rate System
Differential piece system is also called scientific rate setting. Differential piece rate system is also a part of F.P. Taylors scientific management. In this method increase in efficiency is co-related with an increase in the wage rates. This is way, an efficient worker gets more wages whereas inefficient gets less. The system is a source of incentive to workers who go on improving their efficiency to get more wages. Following are the some important characteristics involved in the differential price rate system as:
- Higher rate for those, who produce standard quality or more.
- Loans rates for those, who produce lessees than the standard quality.
- Minimum wages is not guaranteed.
- Standard time is fixed for the standard amount work.