The substance of industrial relations covers a wide range of aspects such as the following:
1. The structure of the economy and labour market
2. Constitutional provisions, legal frameworks, and labour standards (international and national; statutory and voluntary)
3. The structure of trade unions and employers organizations and their linkages, attitudes, and approaches
4. The nature and degree of government intervention
5. Policies on industrial relations at international, national, industry, firm, and workplace levels
6. Labour market policies and labour market institutions, labour law administration and dispute relation mechanisms, etc.
7. Collective bargaining and workers’ participation
The following are the attributes of a sound industrial relations system;
I. Harmonizes the interests of ecologically sustainable economic growth with social progress and justice.
II. Generates productive employment.
III. Contributes to improvement in the productivity and quality of goods/services at economical/ competitive costs/ prices.
IV. Improves the well-being and quality of life of workers and their families.