The Techniques of Costing.
Following are the main types or techniques of costing for ascertaining costs:
- Uniform Costing: It is the use of same costing principles and practices by several undertakings for common control or comparison of costs.
- Marginal Costing: It is the ascertainment of marginal cost by differentiating between fixed and variable cost. It is used to ascertain the effect of changes in volume or type of output on profit.
- Standard Costing: A comparison is made of the actual cost with a pre-arranged standard cost and the cost of any deviation (called variances) is analyzed by causes. This permits the management to investigate the reasons for these variances and to take suitable corrective action.
- Historical Costing: It is ascertainment of costs after they have been incurred. It aims at ascertaining costs actually incurred on work done in the past. It has a limited utility, though comparisons of costs over different periods may yield good results.
- Direct Costing: It is the practice of charging all direct costs, variable and some fixed costs relating to operations, processes or products leaving all other costs to be written off against profits in which they arise.
- Absorption Costing: It is the practice of charging all costs, both variable and fixed to operations, processes or products. This differs from marginal costing where fixed costs are excluded.