The Government, wherein the entire power is in the hands of the people with regard to the governance of the country. People govern the country directly or indirectly. Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as ‘Government of the people, by the people and for the people. In the words of Johnson “Democracy is the Home Rule by the people’.
Main Difficulties in the Functioning of Democracy in India :
- Illiteracy: Illiteracy is one of the most important factors that hinders the functioning of democracy. In India, large section of population is illiterate and uneducated with the result that they fall prey to small and easy inducements. Illiteracy is a big impediment to democracy. In the absence of suitable education, a citizen can not distinguish between a deserving or non-deserving candidate.
- Lack of moral values: People in India have narrow personal interest. People, who are selfish and dishonest, can not even conceive the idea of public good. Their self and narrow interests prompt them to favour an unsuitable candidate.
- Poverty: It is yet another difficulty in the smooth functioning of democracy. In India, a large part of population lives under the poverty line. To the poor people, right to vote or democracy is meaningless without adequate provision of food, shelter and clothing.
- Social and Economic Inequality: In the Indian society, there is a wide gap among the different sections, on the basis of caste, creed, sex, birth, religion etc. There are also widespread inequalities of income. All this causes a handicap to the smooth functioning of democracy.
- The success of democracy lies in the responsible behaviour of the people and the great virtues of character of its citizens.