Learning is influenced by various conditions of life and school. Our attempts should be to create such conditions as are conductive to effective learning and which help students to make the most satisfactory adjustment to life. The following factors influence learning:
1. Hereditary Factors
Neither we can change nor increase hereditary endowment. Of course, we can use it and develop it. This differs in different individuals. Some are very rich in the matters of hereditary endowments while others are very poor. The native intelligence is different in individuals. Children vary also in particular abilities.
The intelligent children can establish and see relationship very easily and more quickly. Our ability to learn and the rate of learning are conditioned by our heredity. Maximum use should be made of the hereditary endowment.
Attempts should be made to see to it that children get opportunities to use and develop their hereditary endowment.
2. Physical Conditions of Children
The physical conditions of children also affect learning. Bodily weakness, chronic illness, malnutrition, fatigue and bad health are a great hindrance in learning. The home conditions-bad ventilation, unhygienic living, bad light, overcrowding etc., affect the rate of learning and the general response of the child Sometimes children have to walk long distances to and from the school and this also influences learning
Physical conditions of the class-room are the other determining factors.
It may also be remembered that learning is affected by the physical teachers-their health, voice and speech
3. Goals Set Before the Pupils
A definite goal should be set before each child according to the standard expected of him. Immediate goals should be set before small children and distant goals for older ones. It must be remembered that the goals should be very clear and the children must understand these goals.
Best learning takes place when the teacher is successful in arousing the interest of the students. “The guidance of the teacher is mainly a matter of giving the right kind of stimulus to help him to learn the right things in the right way”, write Ryburn.
5. Association of Things
Thomdike points out that things .which we want to go together should be put together as a part of one process. Then it becomes easier to make the students understand their connection.
6. Guidance and Instruction
Suitable guidance should be given to the students in selecting the best response to their environment Demonstration is very helpful to teach various skills.
7. Emotional Conditions
Children should be praised when they show good results. This gives them encouragement to show all the more better results and they develop confidence, hope, self-reliance and self-respect sympathetic attitude on the part of the teachers gives stimulus and a sense of security to the students.
We should discard our habit of fault-finding. This develops fear and feelings of insecurity and of inferiority.
8. Result of a Total Situation
Learning is affected by the whole situation. It is not always possible to estimate the result of one individual factor. Learning is fruitful and permanent if the total situation is related to life.