Important steps involved in the study of Environmental impact assessment are below:
(i) Screening of the Project:
Projects that need EIA or do not need it are identified.
(ii) Impact Identification of the Project:
The significant impact of the project is identified and if required, alternatives are suggested.
(iii) Impact Prediction:
The magnitude and duration of the impacts on the environment are predicted through various models, laboratory experiments and judgment by experts.
(iv) Impact Evaluation:
The impacts so predicted are scientifically evaluated by comparing the values against set standards.
(v) Participation of Stakeholders:
For improving quality, comprehensiveness and effectiveness stakeholders’ opinions are considered adequately.
(vi) Specification of Monitoring and Auditing Measures:
Impacts that require continuous monitoring are identified and their auditing is undertaken.
(vii) Documentation of EIA Study:
Draft record along with non-technical summary containing the methodology, number of steps involved, results and discussions, interpretations and conclusions are prepared.
(viii) Review of Report:
Drawn up reports are reviewed by experts to evaluate the efficiency and quality of the EIA. Suggestions are made by the experts. If some items are missing, they are modified as required or accepted by the reviewers in order to facilitate the process of decision-making.
In the end, decision-makers decide the future prospects of the proposed project based on the comments and recommendations of the reviewers through the EIA report.