Individuals differ in intelligence. No two children can be quite similar in intelligence or in any other mental trait just as no two individuals can be quite the same is any physical feature. However, individuals can be graded in large groups of intelligence level with small differences.
There are standardized tests for every age level. Every standardized test has many items to be attempted. The child to be assessed is given the test of his age level to do. It is then evaluated. Every standardized test has its own norms.
There is no need of finding out the Mental Age first and then calculating the I.Q. From the marks secured by the child in that particular test his I.Q. can be found out directly with the help of its norms. Suppose a child of 10 years attempts a test standardized for the group of 10 years chronological age. He secures 70 marks in it. The norms will show what his I.Q. is in that case.
1. Individual Tests
These tests are administered to one individual at a time. These cover age group from 2 years to 18 years. These are: (a) The Binet-Simon Tests, (b) Revised Tests by Terman, and (c) Mental and Scholastic Tests of Burt.
2. Group Tests
Group tests are administered to a group of people. Group tests had their birth in America-when the intelligence of the recruits who joined the army in the First World War was to be calculated. These are: (a) The Army Alpha and Beta Test, (b) Terman’s Group Tests, and (c) Otis Self-administrative Tests.
3. Performance Tests
These tests are administered to the illiterate persons. These tests generally involve the construction of certain patterns or solving problems in terms of concrete material. Some of the famous tests are: (a) Koh’s Block Design Test, (b) The Cube Construction Tests, and (c) The Pass along Tests.
Psychologists now will agree that social factors are the most important in shaping our personality traits. The members of the family, playmates, school and class-fellows, society at large all these in a way determine and influence his personality.
(a) Home Atmosphere
Fundamental patterns of personality are formed during childhood. A congenial home atmosphere, with good relations between the parents and the child, is essential for a well-adjusted personality to develop.
If parents provide a stimulating environment and a great degree of freedom, children will grow into strong, independent and self-reliant individuals. If, on the other hand, they are domineering and strict, children will be timid, lacking initiative and self-confidence.
Over affectionate parents make children too dependent and over strict ones make the too timid or too rebellious. Similarly disrupted homes often produce unstable, badly-adjusted Personalities. The child has close emotional tie to each parent. Hence their quarrels cause serious conflict in his personality.
The position of the child in the family has much to do with the pattern of his personality. The only child, the youngest child, the adopted child, the favourite child, the only son in a family of daughters or the only daughter in the family of sons-grows differently and develops emotional attitudes which make a difference to his or her personality. For example, the only child is likely to be pampered or over-protected.
The parents give him extra protection and love and unknowingly teach him to expect more from the social environment. The child grows self-centred, obstinate and less co-operative.
(b) School Atmosphere
The share and responsibility of the school in forming the personality of the child is equally important. The school makes the man in more than one way. It gives him more knowledge, more opportunities to think and reason and a broader outlook on life.
It helps the emotional development, cultivates tastes and attitudes and offers material for building up ideals and aims in life. The schools of today have realised that mere instruction is not enough.
They are providing opportunities for social competitive and co-operative work and experience. N.C.C., A.C.C., scouting games, social service leagues, co-operative stores, school banks, art clubs, hobbies, trips and the like give opportunities to the growing young people to dominate over some and yield to others, to play the role of leaders and followers as the occasion demands.